The main human activity undertaken in Antarctica is scientific research, and it was at the British Halley research station that the hole in the ozone layer was discovered in 1985. The discovery in 1985 by the British Antarctic Survey of a ‘hole' in the ozone layer of the Earth's atmosphere did more than perhaps any other event, bar nuclear accidents, to bring ecology to prominence in the international political agenda.
The constitutional position of Antarctica is governed by the terms of the Antarctic Treaty of 1959 (which came into effect in 1961), which was signed initially by Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, the UK, Belgium, Japan, South Africa, the USA and Russia. The first seven of these countries have historic claims to the ice-bound continent (none of which were, or are, generally recognised) and the Treaty preserves the status quo, neither recognising nor rejecting the old claims, but forbidding their expansion in any way. The terms of the Treaty also forbid, absolutely, the assertion of new claims. The Treaty applies to all land and ice shelves below 60º south.
In May 1994, the International Whaling Commission agreed to the creation of a whale sanctuary around Antarctica below 40º south.
In May 1997, it was suggested by the World Meteorological Organization that the long-term outlook for the ozone layer over the Antarctic was improving. It will take some years for this to be conclusively proved, however. Even depending on a significant reduction of CFCs and other harmful emissions, it is unlikely that the hole will repair itself permanently (if, indeed, it does at all) before 2060 at the earliest.
Antarctica’s first zero-emission research station, Princess Elisabeth, opened in 2009 and runs solely on renewable energy.