Mountainous Austria is a landlocked country at the heart of Europe, bordered by Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Germany, the Czech Republic, the Slovak Republic, Hungary, Slovenia and Italy. The diverse landscape can be divided into five sections: the Eastern Alps (62.8%), the Alpine and Carpathian Foothills (11.3%), the Pannonian Lowlands (11.3%), the Vienna Basin (4.4%) and the Granite and Gneiss Highlands or Bohemian Massif (10.1%). Austria's highest mountain is Grossglockner (3,798m/12,465ft) found in the Alps' Hohe Tauern range, and, on its way from the Black Forest in southern Germany to the Black Sea, the winding River Danube flows for approximately 360km (220 miles) through the country.
Nearly half of Austria is covered with forests, with the lower regions particularly densely wooded. Fir predominates above 488m (1,600ft), and gives way to larch and stone-pine beyond 1,219m (4,000ft); the Alpine foothills consist predominantly of arable land and grassland (above 610m/2,000ft); the Pannonian region is characterised by scrub and heathland.