Republic. Gained independence from Russia/Germany 1918-1940 and from the Soviet Union in 1990.
Head of state:
President Dalia Grybauskaite since 2009.
Head of government:
Prime Minister Algirdas Butkevičius since 2012.
220 volts AC, 50Hz. European two-pin plugs are in use.
Lithuania is a land of castles, lakes and forests. Its landscape consists of vast plains parted by hills and sand dunes along the Baltic shore. Its capital, Vilnius, is one of Europe's most enchanting cities, owing especially to its Baroque old town.
Lithuanian independence came soon after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. By 1995, the transition to a full market economy had been completed. The long-running border dispute with Poland was settled with the signing of a friendship and co-operation treaty in January 1992 and negotiations with Russia led to the withdrawal of the remaining Russian troops in Lithuania in August 1993.
It is the largest of the three Baltic states. Since gaining EU membership in 2004, the country has been placed on the global stage, encouraging more visitors than ever.