Rwanda travel guide
Known as the 'land of a thousand hills', Rwanda is making the headlines again – and this time, it’s for all the right reasons. With the devastating genocide behind it, this small, landlocked nation has emerged as one of Africa’s most exciting destinations. A tangible sense of optimism resonates from its towns, cities and colourful villages, which welcome foreign visitors with wide smiles and open arms.
The transformation of this country has been remarkable. In 1994 nearly one million inhabitants were slaughtered senselessly in their homes, churches and streets. It was one of the darkest days in modern African history and, at the time, it was almost unthinkable that Rwanda could bounce back.
But is has. In fact the country has even blazed a trail for others to follow, particularly when it comes to gender equality (in 2014 there were more women in parliament here than anywhere else in the world) and conservation.
Indeed the country is a pioneer in eco tourism, which it has used to fund conservation projects such as mountain gorilla protection in the steamy forests of Volcanoes National Park. Trekking to see these endangered primates is the main attraction in Rwanda, where the famous zoologist, Dian Fossey, studied the great apes and inspired the Hollywood film Gorillas in the Mist.
It’s not all about gorillas, though. Nyungwe Forest is one of the largest remaining rainforests in Africa and is home to 13 primates, including chimpanzees and colobus monkeys, as well as rare orchids and nearly 300 species of bird. And, although landlocked, Rwanda still manages to serve up a coastal vibe on the shores of Lake Kivu, with beaches at Gisenyi and coves at Kibuye.
It’s also worth spending a few days in the capital, Kigali: a cool, calm and cosmopolitan city, whose rising skyline reflects the country’s lofty ambitions. Join hip young things in Hillywood, the beating heart of Kigali’s fledgling film industry, or imbibe the vibe in the city’s burgeoning collection of bars, restaurants and hotels, which are helping put this country back on the map.
26,338 sq km (10,169 sq miles).
11,882,766 (UN estimate 2016).
480.7 per sq km.
President Paul Kagame since 2000.
Prime Minister Anastase Murekezi since 2014.
Last updated: 26 November 2019
The travel advice summary below is provided by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in the UK. 'We' refers to the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. For their full travel advice, visit www.gov.uk/foreign-travel-advice.
Rwanda is generally safe and crime levels are relatively low, but street crime does occur. There have been reports of an increase in burglary, theft and mugging in Kigali in recent months. You should take precautions with valuables and remain vigilant.
The security situation near the border with the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Burundi remains unstable, and there have been armed attacks in Rwanda’s Nyungwe Forest and Volcanoes National Parks. If you are travelling near the border with the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) or Burundi, you should be aware of the risk of attacks and Government of Rwanda security operations. You should exercise caution and keep up to date with developments on the current situation, including via your tour operator, the local media and this travel advice.
On 17 July 2019, the World Health Organisation declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) following an outbreak of the Ebola virus eastern DRC. Cases have been confirmed in Goma, close to the DRC-Rwanda border, since 14 July 2019. New cases continue to be reported across the affected areas including the provinces of Ituri, North Kivu and South Kivu. Further advice is available on the World Health Organisation website. On 1 August 2019 border restrictions were temporarily put in place for those travelling between Goma and Rwanda, these have since been lifted but the potential for further disruption remains. The Rwandan government has put in place screening procedures for Ebola at all entry points, including land borders and at airports. Specific requirements remain in place for anyone wishing to enter Rwanda from Ebola-affected areas of DRC. The latest updates can be found on the World Health Organisation website.
You need a visa to enter Rwanda.
If you’re abroad and you need emergency help from the UK government, contact the nearest British embassy, consulate or high commission.
Although there’s no recent history of terrorism in Rwanda, attacks can’t be ruled out.
Safety and security
The eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) which neighbours Rwanda remains unstable, and conflict can flare up with little notice. There have been incidents of violent clashes on the DRC-Rwanda border in recent years.
• On 4 October, an attack in Kinigi, adjacent to Volcanoes National Park, is reported to have caused the death and injury of approximately fourteen people. The Government of Rwanda report that the area is now secure following the deployment of additional security forces and tourism services continue to operate as normal in the Park.
• On 19 October, a grenade attack in Kamembe Town, Rusizi District in the South-West of Rwanda injured four people.
• There have been other violent incursions into the South West of Rwanda. On 15 December 2018, a military incursion killed a number of civilians near Kitabi, on the edge of the Nyungwe Forest National Park, which borders Burundi.
If you plan to visit areas close to the DRC or Burundi borders, such as popular tourist destinations including Volcanoes and Nyungwe National Parks, you should be alert to the risks and exercise caution. All travellers should keep up to date with developments on the current situation, including via your tour operator, the local media and this travel advice.
The border crossings between Rwanda and the DRC at Gisenyi/Goma and Cyangugu/Bukavu are currently open between 6am and 6pm. Both borders are liable to close at short notice and you should not rely on them as a point of exit from DRC.
If you’re crossing regularly between Rwanda and the DRC you may encounter immigration difficulties if you have not regularised your residency status.
The situation in Burundi remains unstable with increased tensions and violence related to the ongoing political crisis. Tensions along the Rwanda/Burundi border remain heightened, with allegations from both sides of cross-border raids targeting local inhabitants.
In July 2016, Burundi banned public transport vehicles from crossing the border with Rwanda and introduced restrictions on Burundian food products being exported into Rwanda.
Rwanda has changed its own travel advice, which advises Rwandan nationals against travel from Rwanda to Uganda. This does not affect travel by other internationals including British nationals, but does mean additional checks may take place at the border.
Gorilla trekking is available as part of organised tours in the Volcanoes National Park. Following the 4 October 2019 attack in Kinigi, adjacent to Volcanoes National Park, the Government of Rwanda report that the area is now secure and trekking and other tourist services continue to operate as normal in the park. If you plan to travel close to the border with the DRC you should remain aware of the risks, exercise caution, and keep up to date with developments on the current situation, including via your tour operator, the local media and this travel advice.
Grenade attacks have occurred sporadically over the last five years. Genocide memorial sites, markets, bus stops, and taxis have been targets in Kigali and Ruhengeri (Musanze). The most recent grenade attack was on 19 October 2019 in Rusizi District, South-West Rwanda, which injured four people. While such attacks have reduced in frequency, further indiscriminate attacks cannot be ruled out, including in places frequented by foreigners. You should remain vigilant.
Levels of crime remain relatively low in Rwanda, but there have been reports of increased instances of burglary, theft and mugging in Kigali in recent months. Incidents of bag snatching, mugging and stealing from vehicles in traffic jams targeting foreigners have been reported in recent months.
You should take sensible precautions. Take care when walking at night. Pre-arrange transport. Lock car doors when driving, don’t leave valuables in cars when parked and don’t leave cars unsupervised in the town centre. Don’t carry large amounts of money or other valuables.
Some off-limits military zones in Kigali may not be well-lit or signposted. You should take extra care when walking around less populated zones, particularly at night time.
You can drive using a UK driving licence or an International Driving Permit for up to one year, after which you should apply for a Rwandan licence. To apply for a local driving licence, you need to write a letter of application to the Commissioner Traffic and Road Safety attaching your existing licence and a copy of your visa or Foreign Resident ID card, and pay a fee.
Roads from Kigali to all major towns are good. There can be landslides during the annual rains in late spring and autumn. Avoid road travel after dark as roads are unlit and driving standards are poor.
Shared taxis (mini-vans) and motorbike taxis are the most common form of public transport within towns and around the country. However, they are also the most vulnerable to accidents.
Before using internal or regional flights that are not with major international carriers, you should check the airline’s accreditation and see whether the airline operates in line with the International Civil Aviation Organisation’s (ICAO) safety standards.
Health and safety
Levels of health and safety in Rwanda are lower than in the UK. There have been incidences of buildings and construction sites collapsing, causing deaths and serious injuries. Fire safety standards are also variable, with incidences of fire in residential and public places a continuing risk.
There have been a number of building fires apparently caused by poor wiring and substandard electrical cables. Take extra care when using electronic equipment.
Although there’s no recent history of terrorism in Rwanda, attacks can’t be ruled out.
There’s a heightened threat of terrorist attack globally against UK interests and British nationals, from groups or individuals motivated by the conflict in Iraq and Syria. You should be vigilant at this time.
Local laws and customs
Photography of government buildings is prohibited.
Plastic bags have been banned for environmental reasons. Visible plastic bags will be confiscated on arrival at the airport.
The week following Genocide Memorial Day on 7 April is designated an official week of mourning.
The last Saturday of each month is umuganda, which is a national day of community service, during which most normal services close down from 7am to 11am. The first and third Sunday of the month, the city of Kigali has a car free day from 7am to 12pm to promote exercise healthy living and to reduce car emissions. Other districts in the country have followed suit in the two consecutive Sundays.
The information on this page covers the most common types of travel and reflects the UK government’s understanding of the rules currently in place. Unless otherwise stated, this information is for travellers using a full ‘British Citizen’ passport.
The authorities in the country or territory you’re travelling to are responsible for setting and enforcing the rules for entry. If you’re unclear about any aspect of the entry requirements, or you need further reassurance, you’ll need to contact the embassy, high commission or consulate of the country or territory you’re travelling to.
You should also consider checking with your transport provider or travel company to make sure your passport and other travel documents meet their requirements.
You need a visa to enter Rwanda. Thirty-day tourist visas are available on arrival for £20 or $30. You can pay in cash (sterling, US dollars or Rwandan francs) or by Visa/Mastercard. Payment by credit card may not be available at all land border crossings. The Rwandan Directorate General of Emigration and Immigration publishes a list of visa types and costs.
If you’re planning to apply for resident/business or missionary multiple entry visas on entry to Rwanda you will need to get UK police clearance before you travel. You can find details of how to do this on the ACRO Criminal Records Office website. This usually takes a minimum of 10 working days to process.
Your passport should be valid for at least 6 months from the date of entry into Rwanda. You’ll need one blank page on your passport for entry stamps.
UK Emergency Travel Documents
UK Emergency Travel Documents (ETDs) are accepted for entry, airside transit and exit from Rwanda. If you’re travelling into Rwanda on an ETD, you’ll be expected to provide Rwandan Immigration with a reason for the use of an ETD, eg proof of residency. If you’re seeking to use a two-way ETD, should clear this with Rwandan Immigration before you travel.
Yellow fever certificate requirements
Check whether you need a yellow fever certificate by visiting the National Travel Health Network and Centre’s TravelHealthPro website.
At least 8 weeks before your trip, check the latest country-specific health advice from the National Travel Health Network and Centre (NaTHNaC) on the TravelHealthPro website. Each country-specific page has information on vaccine recommendations, any current health risks or outbreaks, and factsheets with information on staying healthy abroad. Guidance is also available from NHS (Scotland) on the FitForTravel website.
General information on travel vaccinations and a travel health checklist is available on the NHS website. You may then wish to contact your health adviser or pharmacy for advice on other preventive measures and managing any pre-existing medical conditions while you’re abroad.
The legal status and regulation of some medicines prescribed or purchased in the UK can be different in other countries. If you’re travelling with prescription or over-the-counter medicine, read this guidance from NaTHNaC on best practice when travelling with medicines. For further information on the legal status of a specific medicine, you’ll need to contact the embassy, high commission or consulate of the country or territory you’re travelling to.
While travel can be enjoyable, it can sometimes be challenging. There are clear links between mental and physical health, so looking after yourself during travel and when abroad is important. Information on travelling with mental health conditions is available in our guidance page. Further information is also available from the National Travel Health Network and Centre (NaTHNaC).
Only limited medical facilities are available in Rwanda. In the event of serious accident or illness evacuation by air ambulance to Kenya or South Africa may be required. Make sure you have adequate travel health insurance and accessible funds to cover the cost of any medical treatment abroad and repatriation.
According to Rwandan law, any person on Rwandan territory must have health insurance.
On 17 July 2019, the World Health Organisation declared the outbreak to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) following an outbreak of the Ebola virus in eastern DRC. The latest updates can be found on the World Health Organization (WHO) website. New cases continue to be reported across the affected areas including the provinces of Ituri, North Kivu and South Kivu. Cases have been confirmed in Goma, close to the DRC-Rwanda border, since 14 July 2019. Further advice is available on the World Health Organisation website. On 1 August 2019 border restrictions were temporarily put in place for those travelling between Goma and Rwanda, these have since been lifted but the potential for further disruption remains. On 11 June 2019, the Ugandan Ministry of Health confirmed an outbreak of Ebola in Kasese district, western Uganda.
Public Health England has updated its guidance for humanitarian or healthcare workers travelling to countries at risk of Ebola.
The Rwandan government has put in place screening procedures for Ebola at all entry points, including land borders and at airports. Rwanda Ministry of Health policies for travellers wishing to enter Rwanda from Ebola-affected areas of DRC, including health care workers and humanitarian volunteers, remain in place. The policy mandates that you should provide advance notice of your intention to travel to Rwanda to the Rwandan Ministry of Health, and you will need to comply with quarantine procedures for a period of 21 days before onward travel within or through Rwanda is permitted.
There is a high risk of malaria in all areas of Rwanda, including Kigali.
If you need emergency medical assistance during your trip, dial 112 and ask for an ambulance. You should contact your insurance/medical assistance company promptly if you are referred to a medical facility for treatment.
There are occasional earthquakes. You can find a real-time earthquake map and further information about earthquakes in Rwanda on the website of the US Geological Survey. In the event of an earthquake, monitor local media reports and follow the advice of the local authorities. The US Federal Emergency Management Agency has advice on what to do before, during and after an earthquake.
The rainy season in much of Rwanda runs from February to May and from September to December. April being the height of the rainy season. Heavy storms can cause disruption and damage including landslides and floods. You should monitor local media reports and follow the advice of local authorities.
Rwanda Francs is the dominant currency and you should expect to pay for transport and in smaller shops using cash.
There are ATMs in Kigali, but not all of them accept foreign cards. Credit cards are increasingly accepted in larger bars, restaurants and in some supermarkets.
Travel advice help and support
If you’re abroad and you need emergency help from the UK government, contact the nearest British embassy, consulate or high commission. If you need urgent help because something has happened to a friend or relative abroad, contact the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) in London on 020 7008 1500 (24 hours).
Foreign travel checklist
Read our foreign travel checklist to help you plan for your trip abroad and stay safe while you’re there.
The FCO travel advice helps you make your own decisions about foreign travel. Your safety is our main concern, but we can’t provide tailored advice for individual trips. If you’re concerned about whether or not it’s safe for you to travel, you should read the travel advice for the country or territory you’re travelling to, together with information from other sources you’ve identified, before making your own decision on whether to travel. Only you can decide whether it’s safe for you to travel.
When we judge the level of risk to British nationals in a particular place has become unacceptably high, we’ll state on the travel advice page for that country or territory that we advise against all or all but essential travel. Read more about how the FCO assesses and categorises risk in foreign travel advice.
Our crisis overseas page suggests additional things you can do before and during foreign travel to help you stay safe.
Refunds and cancellations
If you wish to cancel or change a holiday that you’ve booked, you should contact your travel company. The question of refunds and cancellations is a matter for you and your travel company. Travel companies make their own decisions about whether or not to offer customers a refund. Many of them use our travel advice to help them reach these decisions, but we do not instruct travel companies on when they can or can’t offer a refund to their customers.
For more information about your rights if you wish to cancel a holiday, visit the Citizen’s Advice Bureau website. For help resolving problems with a flight booking, visit the website of the Civil Aviation Authority. For questions about travel insurance, contact your insurance provider and if you’re not happy with their response, you can complain to the Financial Ombudsman Service.
Registering your travel details with us
We’re no longer asking people to register with us before travel. Our foreign travel checklist and crisis overseas page suggest things you can do before and during foreign travel to plan your trip and stay safe.
Previous versions of FCO travel advice
If you’re a British national and you have a question about travelling abroad that isn’t covered in our foreign travel advice or elsewhere on GOV.UK, you can submit an enquiry. We’re not able to provide tailored advice for specific trips.
Browse our Video Guides