Sudan travel guide
Sudan is hardly your archetypal tourist destination, but behind the unsavoury headlines is a country of exquisite natural beauty, ancient historical attractions and inhabitants well versed in the art of hospitality.
A vast country, three times the size of Texas, Sudan is as much about people as it is natural or man-made wonders. It is a nation where travellers can learn more drinking freshly prepared smoothies with the residents of Khartoum (Sudan is officially alcohol free) than they can by visiting one of the capital’s excellent museums.
A relatively young city, Khartoum was built in 1821 at the confluence of the Blue and White Niles while the country was ruled jointly by Britain and Egypt. History and traditionalism jostle with modernity in the city, where stunning classical Islamic architecture in red ochre hues stands beside modern glass and steel skyscrapers paid for by the country’s oilfields (which were mostly lost with the independence of South Sudan in 2011).
Centuries before colonial rule Sudan comprised a series of city-states. One of the longest lasting was Meroë, which sits some 200 km (125 miles) northeast of Khartoum. A UNESCO World Heritage Site, this ancient city features more than 200 steep-sided pyramids, which were built as elaborate royal mausoleums. They rise from the sandy dunes of the Nubian Desert and date from between 300 BC and AD 300, when the kingdom was at its most powerful.
Worth visiting in itself, the Nubian Desert – in reality part of the Sahara – offers solitude and unspoiled natural beauty stretching east all the way to the Red Sea and Port Sudan, the centre of Sudan’s burgeoning diving scene.
One of the least visited countries in East Africa, but one of the friendliest, Sudan has a magical mix of history, tradition and modernity that belies its status as a pariah state.
1,861,484 sq km (718,723 sq miles).
41,175,541 (UN estimate 2016).
19.1 per sq km.
First vice president of High Council of the Armed Forces: Lt.Gen. Abdel Fattah Burhan, since 2019.
Prime Minister Mohamed Tahir Ayala's government was dissolved in 2019.
Last updated: 18 May 2019
The travel advice summary below is provided by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in the UK. 'We' refers to the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. For their full travel advice, visit www.gov.uk/foreign-travel-advice.
The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) advise against all travel to:
- the Darfur states
- the Abyei Region
- South Kordofan and Blue Nile states
- the southern area of West Kordofan state that was previously part of South Kordofan, as shown on the map
- within 50km of the border with South Sudan in White Nile and Sennar states
- within 200km of the border with Libya
The FCO advise against all but essential travel to:
- within 100km of the border with Egypt in areas west of the Nile Valley
- within 20km of the border with Eritrea
- areas of North Kordofan and West Kordofan states south of the Kost-El Obeid-En Nahud road
Following political developments on 11 April 2019, when Sudan’s President was removed and a Transitional Military Council established, the situation in Khartoum is calm. However, sizeable protests are continuing, focused around a site immediately outside the Military Headquarters to the north of Khartoum airport. These have largely been peaceful, but this could change rapidly. If you’re in Sudan, you should maintain a high level of vigilance, monitor developments closely, avoid all protests and large gatherings, and follow the instructions of the local authorities and security services.
During the current extended period of protests, there have been sporadic limitations on access to internet-based communications and social media sites. Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) are not readily available to download in Sudan.
If you intend to travel outside of Khartoum and around the wider country, plan ahead and seek information on the situation in districts you propose travelling to or through before departing. Check regularly with your airline for the latest information on the status of your flight before travelling to Khartoum airport.
The ability of the British Embassy to provide consular support to British nationals in Sudan is severely limited. You shouldn’t assume that the FCO will be able to provide assistance to leave the country in the event of serious unrest, a further deterioration in the security situation and/or reduced capacity of commercial flights. for more information about the precautions you should take in the event of a crisis and the help and support the British Embassy can provide.
On a number of occasions since the beginning of 2018, there have been shortages of fuel throughout Sudan including in Khartoum. At times these have led to very long queues (several hours or even overnight) at petrol stations (which regularly run dry) and rationing of the commercial supply. Earlier in the year, the shortages had knock on effects, including availability of services and some basic food items. There have been some violent incidents at petrol stations. If you need to travel by road, consider how you will get fuel during your journey and whether you have sufficient fuel for your return trip.
On 30 December 2017, President Omar Al Bashir announced a state of emergency in the states of Kassala and North Kordofan, which remains in place. States of emergency give the authorities increased powers of arrest in these areas. The border between Sudan and Ethiopia was closed suddenly on 28 April 2019. On 31 January 2019 the border between Sudan and Eritrea was reopened, having been closed since January 2018. A heavy security presence remains in the area.
Terrorists are likely to try to carry out attacks in Sudan. Attacks could be indiscriminate, including in places frequented by expatriates and foreign travellers.
If you’re abroad and you need emergency help from the UK government, contact the nearest British embassy, consulate or high commission.
The Overseas Business Risk service offers information and advice for British companies operating overseas on how to manage political, economic, and business security-related risks.
Safety and security
The level of street crime in Khartoum and other major Sudanese cities, with the exception of Darfur, is low but increasing. Incidents of mobile phone and bag-snatching (including drive-by bag snatching by thieves on motorbikes), aggressive begging (including attempts to open the doors of stationary vehicles), petty theft and burglaries do occur. Remain alert and take sensible precautions to protect yourself and your belongings. Take care not to leave valuable items on display in your car while travelling and keep doors locked and windows closed at all times. If you’re stopped, you should avoid confrontation.
The FCO advise against all travel to the Darfur states, the Abyei Region, South Kordofan and Blue Nile states, the southern area of West Kordofan state (that was previously part of South Kordofan), within 50km of the border with South Sudan in White Nile and Sennar states, and within 200km of the border with Libya.
The FCO advise against all but essential travel to within 100km of the border with Egypt in areas west of the Nile Valley, within 20km of the border with Eritrea and areas of North Kordofan and West Kordofan states south of the Kost-El Obeid-En Nahud road.
States of emergency, which give the authorities greater powers of arrest, are introduced by the Government from time to time. You should seek local advice before travelling. There have been reports of arbitrary detentions in different parts of the country, including in Khartoum and including of foreign nationals. Take great care around any areas which may be sensitive to the government, including military installations, border areas and camps for internally displaced persons. Don’t take photographs in these areas.
Permits are no longer officially required to travel outside of Khartoum for the purpose of tourism. Travel outside of Khartoum for any other purpose must be checked with the Aliens Department at the Ministry of Interior.
If you’re planning to travel outside of Khartoum make sure you carry enough fuel for your journey or are confident you will be able to refuel en route, as there have been sporadic acute fuel shortages both within the Khartoum and across the country.
Local travel - Khartoum
On 11 April the Army announced that it had removed the President and that a transitional military council would temporarily govern the country. Protesters continue to occupy a site immediately to the north of the airport outside the Military headquarters. There is a heavy security presence in the area and the situation remains unpredictable.
On 13 May, uniformed personnel opened fire on protesters inside the protest site. On the same day an an attempt was made to remove roadblocks and disperse protesters on Nile Street and elsewhere around the perimeter of the protest site, using live ammunition, tear gas and batons. Following these incidents there were reports of fatalities and a significant number of injuries.
On 15 May security forces, again, attempted to remove barricades on Nile Street and other roads around the perimeter of the protest site. Live ammunition was used to disperse crowds and there have been further reports of fatalities and injuries following these incidents.
Protesters are erecting an increasing number of unoffocial barriers across roads and bridges in Khartoum and elsewhere in Sudan since 13 May 2019. These appear with little or no warning resulting in bridges closing and severe traffic congestion. You should exercise caution, plan ahead, be prepared for significant delays and follow the advice of local authorities. If you encounter a roadblock, remain calm and seek an alternative route. Do not attempt to force your way through it.
The situation remains unpredictable and you should monitor developments closely, avoiding protests or other large gatherings and follow the advice of local authorities. The British Embassy has made a decision to not allow staff to enter the site of the main demonstration.
Local travel - Darfur States
The FCO advise against all travel to the 5 Darfur states (Central Darfur, East Darfur, North Darfur, West Darfur and South Darfur). Reports of protests, armed response and armed clashes in several parts of Darfur are frequent.
The security situation in Darfur is volatile and unstable. Banditry and lawlessness are widespread, and there are frequent violent confrontations between rebel and government forces, between tribes and over economic resources (land, gold), as well as continuing anti-government protests. There are tensions within camps for internally displaced people, which have sometimes resulted in violence and fatalities. Armed robbery and break-ins of guesthouses and other buildings have been reported.
Humanitarian workers and UNAMID peacekeepers are possible targets of attack or for kidnap, and have been caught up in cross-fire and violent incidents. A number of aid workers and peacekeepers have been killed in recent years.
There is a high threat of kidnapping. Kidnappings can be for financial or political gain, and can be motivated by criminality or terrorism. There have been a number of kidnappings, including of British nationals and other westerners. Kidnap groups view those engaged in humanitarian aid work or journalism as legitimate targets.
If you are in Darfur against FCO advice, you should respect any curfews that are imposed and make sure you are aware of any military operations, conflict and crime patterns. Make sure that you have co-ordinated your movements with UN Security and that all necessary parties have been notified. Anyone seeking entry to the Darfur area, for whatever purpose, must first obtain a special permit from the Sudanese government.
Local travel - rest of Sudan
North Kordofan, West Kordofan, White Nile and Sennar States
The FCO advise against all travel to within 50km of the border with South Sudan in White Nile and Sennar states.
The FCO advise against all travel to the southern area of West Kordofan state that was formerly part of South Kordofan, as shown on the map.
There is a risk of conflict and violence spreading into White Nile, North Kordofan and Sennar states from neighbouring areas. You should maintain high situational awareness and avoid any areas where conflict is reported.
The FCO advise against all travel to within 200km of the border with Libya. There are ongoing media reports of trafficking in people and goods as well as movement of armed militants between the two countries. The FCO currently advise against all travel to Libya and the border is closed to non-African nationals.
The FCO advise against all but essential travel to within 100km of the border with Egypt in the area west of the Nile Valley.
South Kordofan, Blue Nile and Abyei
The FCO advise against all travel to the Abyei Administrative Area. The security situation there remains tense and unpredictable.
The FCO advise against all travel to South Kordofan and Blue Nile states, due to continuing conflict between the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) and Sudanese People’s Liberation Army - North (SPLA-N).
Landmines and unexploded ordnance are a threat in areas affected by conflict.
East Sudan: Gedaref, Kassala and Red Sea States
The FCO advise against all but essential travel to within 20km of the border with Eritrea. This area does not include the city of Kassala, which is more than 20km from the border.
Although the situation is calm at present it has been subject to instability and could deteriorate rapidly. If you’re travelling by road in Kassala State, you should keep to the major roads, as people-trafficking groups are believed to operate in some areas.
On 30 December 2017, President Omar Al Bashir announced a state of emergency in Kassala, which remains in place. States of emergency give the authorities increased powers of arrest in these areas. On 31 January 2019 the border between Sudan and Eritrea was reopened, having been closed since January 2018. A heavy security presence remains in the area.
Local tensions in the Galabat area have previously resulted in the closure of the Metema-Galabat border post at short notice. Take care in these areas and check with local authorities on the latest situation before starting your journey.
Road traffic accidents are common in Sudan. There is a high risk of being involved in a traffic accident when using public transport or vehicles for hire such as rickshaws and ‘amjad minivans’.
Road conditions are poor and many roads, even major ones, are not tarred or have potholes. Many roads are unsurfaced. Roads are used by pedestrians, donkey-carts and rickshaws, as well as motor vehicles At night, there is generally no street lighting and many vehicles have no lights.
If your journey doesn’t follow a major route you should travel with an experienced local guide. Many areas south of Khartoum become inaccessible by road during the rainy season from July to October. The wadis (dry riverbeds) are subject to dangerous flash floods and many are not passable during the rains except on a major road.
You can drive in Sudan using a full UK driving licence for a maximum period of 3 months. You can get a local driving licence from the police traffic department. Although drivers should have a licence and insurance, many do not have these. Make sure you have adequate insurance.
Sudanese law prohibits the use of mobile phones while driving.
Since 2010, all airlines registered in Sudan have been banned from operating in the EU on the basis of safety assessments by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).
Incidents of piracy have been reported in the Red Sea around the Gulf of Aden. Be vigilant and seek local advice. For more information and advice, see our Piracy and armed robbery at sea page.
If you intend to go ashore along the Red Sea Coast, ensure you have the correct documentation.
Sudan’s political situation remains highly volatile. On 11 April 2019, it was announced that Sudan’s President and government had been removed from office by the military. A transitional military council has been established and is engaged in talks with protesters and political parties who are seeking a transition to civilian rule.
Keep a low profile, avoid crowds, monitor local media and keep away from any demonstrations. As a precaution, you should maintain several days’ stock of food and water, and stay indoors until any demonstration or rally in your locality has passed.
You should monitor local media and follow the advice of the local authorities on where demonstrations may take place.
Terrorists are likely to try to carry out attacks in Sudan. Attacks could be indiscriminate, including in places visited by foreigners.
There’s a heightened threat of terrorist attack globally against UK interests and British nationals, from groups or individuals motivated by the conflict in Iraq and Syria. You should be vigilant at this time.
Find out more about the global threat from terrorism, how to minimise your risk and what to do in the event of a terrorist attack.
There is a high threat of kidnapping in Darfur. Kidnappings can be for financial or political gain, and can be motivated by criminality or terrorism. There have been a number of recent kidnappings, including of British nationals and other westerners. Kidnap groups view those engaged in humanitarian aid work or journalism as legitimate targets.
The long-standing policy of the British government is not to make substantive concessions to hostage takers. The British government considers that paying ransoms and releasing prisoners increases the risk of further hostage-taking.
Local laws and customs
Local laws reflect the fact that Sudan is predominantly Muslim. You should respect local traditions, customs, laws and religions at all times and be aware of your actions to ensure that they do not offend other cultures or religious beliefs, especially during the holy month of Ramadan or if you intend to visit religious areas.
In 2019, the holy month of Ramadan is expected to start on 5 May and finish on 4 June.
Sudan operates Islamic Sharia Law. Alcohol is not permitted. Although the constitution specifies that in Khartoum non-Muslims shall not be subject to Sharia law, you should expect Sharia law to apply.
Non-Muslim women are not expected to wear a veil or cover their heads, but should dress modestly and respect local customs and sensitivities.
Homosexual practices and extra marital relations are illegal and subject to severe penalties. This includes inviting guests into hotel rooms. Sudanese society is not tolerant of homosexual relationships. See our information and advice page for the LGBT community before you travel.
You should carry a form of photo ID with you at all times.
There are severe penalties for drug trafficking.
All photography requires a formal permit, which you can get from the External Information Centre in Khartoum (part of the Ministry of Information). Don’t take photographs or use a mobile phone camera close to government buildings, military installations, public utilities (including petrol stations), and other sensitive areas (bridges, airports etc). Many plain clothed public security officers operate.
It is normal practice for hotels to take a photocopy of your passport. It’s against the law to live together, or to share the same hotel room, with someone of the opposite sex to whom you aren’t married or closely related. Business meetings should take place in lobbies or business meetings room and not hotel rooms. As recently as 2018, British nationals have encountered problems in this respect with the Sudanese authorities. Tourist police patrol the hotels.
If you want to buy property in Sudan, you should seek appropriate professional advice, as you would in the UK. A list of lawyers in Sudan is available on the British Embassy Khartoum website.
Financial crimes, including fraud, bouncing cheques (including post-dated and ‘security cheques’) and the non-payment of bills (including hotel bills) can often result in imprisonment and/or a fine. Bank accounts and other assets can also be frozen. Bail is generally not available to people who are arrested for financial crimes. Those convicted will not generally be released from jail until the debt is paid or waived and they may even remain in jail after a debt has been paid if there is an outstanding sentence to be served.
Equipment like satellite phones, listening or recording devices, radio transmitters, powerful cameras or binoculars may require a licence for use in Sudan. You should seek advice from the Sudanese Embassy in London before travelling.
The information on this page covers the most common types of travel and reflects the UK government’s understanding of the rules currently in place. Unless otherwise stated, this information is for travellers using a full ‘British Citizen’ passport.
The authorities in the country or territory you’re travelling to are responsible for setting and enforcing the rules for entry. If you’re unclear about any aspect of the entry requirements, or you need further reassurance, you’ll need to contact the embassy, high commission or consulate of the country or territory you’re travelling to.
You should also consider checking with your transport provider or travel company to make sure your passport and other travel documents meet their requirements.
British nationals need a visa to visit Sudan. Apply before you travel via the Sudanese Embassy in London.
You should register with the Aliens Department at the Ministry of Interior within 3 days of your arrival in the country. You will need two passport size photos. The fee is the Sudanese Pound equivalent of around £35. If you don’t register within 3 days of arrival, you may be fined. Some of the larger hotels will do this for you but you should ask when you check-in.
Visitors to Sudan on a single entry visa need to get an exit visa to leave the country, though this is not always enforced. Exit visas can be processed at the airport. If requested, you should be ready to show proof of your sponsor and pay the exit visa fee of 50 US dollars.
Most foreign residents, including British nationals, also need an exit permit. You are advised to check the details with your sponsor, ideally before your arrival, and to ensure that you understand and are happy with the process. You should also be aware that this requirement could make it difficult for you to leave the country at short notice, should the need arise.
Children under 18
In addition to a visa, children under 18 must have their father’s consent to enter and exit Sudan. Children travelling without their father will need a letter clearly providing consent for the child to enter and exit Sudan. The letter should be stamped at the Sudanese Embassy before travel.
Where the father is absent or deceased, mothers or guardians should get a court order which clearly shows that the mother or guardian has sole custodial rights for the children. Where the parents are divorced, this should be accompanied by divorce documents. Where the father is deceased, this should be accompanied by a death certificate. Contact the Sudanese Embassy in London for more information.
Previous travel to Israel
If your passport has an Israeli visa or Israeli entry/exit stamps you will not be allowed to enter Sudan.
Yellow fever certificate requirements
Check whether you need a yellow fever certificate by visiting the National Travel Health Network and Centre’s TravelHealthPro website.
Your passport should be valid for a minimum period of 6 months from the date of entry into Sudan.
UK Emergency Travel Documents
UK Emergency Travel Documents (ETDs) are not valid for entry into or transit through the Republic of Sudan. However, ETDs are accepted for exit from the country.
At least 8 weeks before your trip, check the latest country-specific health advice from the National Travel Health Network and Centre (NaTHNaC) on the TravelHealthPro website. Each country-specific page has information on vaccine recommendations, any current health risks or outbreaks, and factsheets with information on staying healthy abroad. Guidance is also available from NHS (Scotland) on the FitForTravel website.
General information on travel vaccinations and a travel health checklist are available on the NHS website. You may then wish to contact your health adviser or pharmacy for advice on other preventive measures and managing any pre-existing medical conditions while you’re abroad.
Make sure you have the recommended vaccinations before travelling to Sudan. There is a particular risk to public health in conflict affected areas where immunisation coverage is poor.
The legal status and regulation of some medicines prescribed or purchased in the UK can be different in other countries. If you’re travelling with prescription or over-the-counter medicine, read this guidance from NaTHNaC on best practice when travelling with medicines. For further information on the legal status of a specific medicine, you’ll need to contact the embassy, high commission or consulate of the country or territory you’re travelling to.
Sudan is prone to seasonal disease outbreaks, spread by both insect vectors and contaminated water, and travellers are advised to take maximum preventive precautions and seek early medical assistance in case of suspected infections. There are also many cases of malaria in Darfur. All recommended vaccines should be up to date. Further information can be found on the TravelHealthPro website.
As a general rule, GP facilities in Khartoum are adequate but the hospitals are not suitable for more serious medical problems. Make sure you have adequate travel health insurance and accessible funds to cover the cost of any medical treatment abroad, medical evacuation and repatriation.
The FCO can’t recommend any healthcare provider in Sudan, but if you urgently need emergency medical assistance in Khartoum, the following services are available:
- 0183 741 426 (press #236 for English) or 0912 314 621: Fedail Hospital (ambulance: 0122 222 555)
- 0183 279601 ext 222: Sahiroon Hospital
- 0183 745 444/999: Al Zaytouna Hospital
- 0183 481 764 ext 118: Doctors’ Clinic
- 0156 550 150/151: Royal Care Hospital
You should contact your insurance/medical assistance company promptly if you are referred to a medical facility for treatment.
Sudan suffers from drought and flash flooding. Flooding can make areas inaccessible by road during the rainy season.
It’s not possible to withdraw any cash against credit and debit cards at banks or from ATMs. Foreign credit and debit cards can’t be used anywhere in Sudan, including at international hotels. Make sure you have enough hard currency with you – this should be in US dollars dated 2006 onwards (older ones will not be exchanged). Pounds sterling are rarely exchanged. You should only change money through banks or official bureaux de exchange (eg in hotels). Don’t change any money on the street.
Travel advice help and support
If you’re abroad and you need emergency help from the UK government, contact the nearest British embassy, consulate or high commission. If you need urgent help because something has happened to a friend or relative abroad, contact the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) in London on 020 7008 1500 (24 hours).
Foreign travel checklist
Read our foreign travel checklist to help you plan for your trip abroad and stay safe while you’re there.
The FCO travel advice helps you make your own decisions about foreign travel. Your safety is our main concern, but we can’t provide tailored advice for individual trips. If you’re concerned about whether or not it’s safe for you to travel, you should read the travel advice for the country or territory you’re travelling to, together with information from other sources you’ve identified, before making your own decision on whether to travel. Only you can decide whether it’s safe for you to travel.
When we judge the level of risk to British nationals in a particular place has become unacceptably high, we’ll state on the travel advice page for that country or territory that we advise against all or all but essential travel. Read more about how the FCO assesses and categorises risk in foreign travel advice.
Our crisis overseas page suggests additional things you can do before and during foreign travel to help you stay safe.
Refunds and cancellations
If you wish to cancel or change a holiday that you’ve booked, you should contact your travel company. The question of refunds and cancellations is a matter for you and your travel company. Travel companies make their own decisions about whether or not to offer customers a refund. Many of them use our travel advice to help them reach these decisions, but we do not instruct travel companies on when they can or can’t offer a refund to their customers.
For more information about your rights if you wish to cancel a holiday, visit the Citizen’s Advice Bureau website. For help resolving problems with a flight booking, visit the website of the Civil Aviation Authority. For questions about travel insurance, contact your insurance provider and if you’re not happy with their response, you can complain to the Financial Ombudsman Service.
Registering your travel details with us
We’re no longer asking people to register with us before travel. Our foreign travel checklist and crisis overseas page suggest things you can do before and during foreign travel to plan your trip and stay safe.
Previous versions of FCO travel advice
If you’re a British national and you have a question about travelling abroad that isn’t covered in our foreign travel advice or elsewhere on GOV.UK, you can submit an enquiry. We’re not able to provide tailored advice for specific trips.