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Lisbon History

Roman rule, Moorish occupation, imperial aspirations and a catastrophic earthquake: Lisbon has experienced them all.

Lisbon is one of the world’s oldest cities. During the Neolithic period, pre-Celtic tribes inhabited the region and archaeologists claim that Phoenicians established a trading port here in the sheltered Tagus estuary. The Romans began a 200-year reign here in 205BC, and Lisbon became one of the most significant cities in the Iberian Peninsula, particularly when Julius Caesar became governor in 60BC.

Lisbon was later occupied by a succession of conquerors, most notably the Moors for 450 years from AD711, when the city prospered as a trading centre. In 1147, Christian crusaders reconquered the city and in 1255, Lisbon became the Portuguese capital. The city reached its zenith in the 14th and 15th centuries, when its explorers conquered the world's oceans; the city was at the heart of an empire stretching from Brazil to India.

The Great Earthquake of 1755 devastated the city, although fortunately the Marques de Pombal was on hand to plan and oversee the reconstruction. He did it on modern principles, designing the city on a north-south axis with a grid of streets stretching out from Baixa (lower town) at its heart.

The 20th century brought political upheaval, and the Estado Novo regime from 1926-74 proved to be the longest right-wing dictatorship in Europe. The Carnation Revolution brought the regime to an end, but in the aftermath, the city failed to modernise, and right up until the late 20th century Lisbon was widely regarded as rundown and poverty-stricken.

Then, in the 1990s, urban regeneration projects helped transform Lisbon, the city was crowned European Capital of Culture in 1994, and its container port became the largest on the Atlantic coast. Though on shaky ground economically since the 2008 financial crisis, Lisbon's transformation has finally helped the city grow up.

Did you know?
• Under Julius Caesar, Lisbon was named Felicitas Julia.
• Setting sail from Lisbon, explorer Vasco da Gama discovered the sea route to India in 1498.
• Built in 1998, the 17km (11-mile) Vasco da Gama bridge is Europe’s longest.

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Inspira Santa Marta

Sleep with a clear mind and conscience at this Feng Shui designed spa hotel, a tranquil oasis close to Lisbon’s grand boulevard Avenida da Liberdade. Vegetarian, vegan and gluten-free choices are showcased on the Mediterranean menu and the environmentally-friendly hotel is built from sustainable materials and supports green projects around the globe.

Memmo Principe Real

The latest hotel in Lisbon's three-strong Memmo stable blends contemporary style with traditional touches such as hand-painted tiles and hand-blown bedside lights in the 41 rooms. Guests can get their bearings on a free daily walking tour of the local area, including the leafy Principe Real gardens.

Hotel Borges Chiado

Located in the central district of Chiado, with views of the Tagus River, this budget hotel offers 96 simple rooms that are both comfortable and clean. All rooms come with air-conditioning, TVs and free Wi-Fi. You'd be hard pushed to find somewhere bettered placed for the Museum of Chiado and Bairro Alto too.

Hotel Lisboa Plaza

Designed predominantly by interior idealist Graca Viterbo, this centrally located 4-star hotel has followed a programme of renovation that has kept it looking fresh whilst retaining its unique character. Though it offers 94 classically finished rooms and 12 suites, it feels much smaller with a cosy lobby and friendly service.

Internacional Design Hotel

Overlooking the historic Rossio Square, the interior of this hotel belies its traditional façade. The 55 rooms are split into cool 'concepts' (urban, tribal, zen and pop), with interiors reflecting the themes, such as graffiti artwork, zebra prints and fresh grass aromas, chill-out music or bubble gum colours.

Olissippo Lapa Palace

Long regarded as Lisbon's finest luxury hotel, the Olissippo Lapa Palace boasts spacious bedrooms with huge bathrooms and splendid beds, all elegantly presented and traditionally styled. Set among sub-tropical gardens, it has indoor and outdoor pools as well as a spa, making it feel like a resort in the city centre.