It’s been a rocky ride for Bratislava, but the city has emerged as a modern European metropolis.
Originally settled by Neolithic man from the late Stone Age, Bratislava later held a high status in the second century BC as an important Celtic defence and trading post.
The Romans built military camps here – one of which, Gerulata, lies under the modern suburb of Rusovce.
Bratislava first appears in written records in the 10th century, when it was part of the Moravian Empire, but it was annexed by Hungary in the 11th century.
From 1536 to 1783, Bratislava was the capital of Hungary, known as Pozsony.
Despite its population being decimated by plague in 1711, Bratislava reached its zenith in the mid-18th century under the patronage of Empress Marie Theresa.
Maria Theresa’s successor was considerably less able however, and only three years after her death, the Hungarian capital became Budapest once more.
Bratislava was besieged by Napoleon’s troops in 1809. The castle was burnt down in 1811.
Attempts were made to gain greater autonomy from Hungary, but following the establishment of the Dual Monarchy in 1867, Slovak culture was heavily suppressed.
Until 1918, the city was a 'resort' area of Austria-Hungary, called Pressburg in German. In 1919, the city was annexed to the Czechoslovak Republic.
During WWII, a quasi-Nazi government was established in Slovakia. An armed uprising against this government in 1944 was crushed.
Slovakia’s long years under Communist rule following the war were interrupted only once, briefly, when the reformist policies of Bratislava-born Party Secretary Alexander Dubček led to the Prague Spring of 1968 – after which the Soviet tanks rolled in.
After the fall of Communism in 1989, Bratislava restored its Old Town and soon became a popular visitor destination.
When Czechoslovakia split in 1993, Bratislava became the Slovak capital, joining the EU in 2004.
Did you know?
• Mozart performed in Bratislava in 1762 when he was six.
• Bratislava used to be known as a tri-lingual city, whose inhabitants could switch between Slovak, German and Hungarian.
• Bratislava has co-hosted the Ice Hockey World Championships three times – in 1959, 1992 and 2011.