Iraq travel guide
Iraq may be synonymous with strife, a land of dusty, dubious conflicts, but what you don’t see in the mainstream media are the country’s many attributes: its fantastic birdlife, shimmering oases, turquoise rivers, fertile valleys, UNESCO World Heritage Sites and stunning cityscapes. Some of the world’s oldest societies came out of this ancient land and many refer to the region as the ‘cradle of civilisation.’
But despite its glorious past, the country has little to celebrate at present. Most of Iraq’s political, social, physical and economic infrastructures were destroyed by the US-led invasion in 2003. Successful elections and the withdrawal of troops in 2009 seemed to herald Iraq’s road to recovery and there were reasons to be optimistic: despite continuing violence, tourism had climbed back up to an impressive two million people a year by 2013 and plans were afoot to increase that number threefold.
The government even announced that it would restore the Arch of Ctesiphon, the world’s biggest arch made of bricks, and what remains of the ancient Persian capital of the same name. Also revealed were plans to repair the damage done to the southern marshes, which Sadam Hussein drained, and use its status as a bird haven to create a centre for eco-tourism.
Since 2013, though, the security situation has rapidly deteriorated, culminating with the Islamic militant group ISIS seizing large swathes of territory in the north in 2014. The Iraqi government has since pushed back against the insurgency, but the situation remains highly volatile with no end in sight.
Despite government warnings to avoid travelling to the country, a few adventure tour companies are still taking small groups to Iraq, albeit not the north. If and when the country finally stabilises, there’s little doubt that tourists will return in greater numbers to the ‘cradle of civilisation’. But until then, travel to Iraq is strongly advised against.
438,317 sq km (169,235 sq miles).
37,547,686 (UN estimate 2016).
89 per km2
President Barham Salih since 2018.
Prime Minister Adel Abdul Mahdi since 2018.
Last updated: 01 July 2018
The travel advice summary below is provided by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in the UK. 'We' refers to the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. For their full travel advice, visit www.gov.uk/foreign-travel-advice.
The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) advise against all travel to:
- Anbar province
- Ninewah province
- Salah-Al-Din province
- Diyala province
- Tam’mim (Kirkuk) province
- in Erbil province, south of Road 80, and within 10km of the border with Ninewah province between Road 80 and Road 2
The FCO advise against all but essential travel to the rest of Iraq, including the remainder of the Kurdistan region.
The Federal Government of Iraq announced the resumption of international flights to and from Erbil and Sulaimaniyah airports from 19 March. Travellers should check with airlines before making plans. According to Iraqi law you must have a visa before you travel, even if you’re intending to travel to the Kurdistan Region of Iraq.
The Iraqi Prime Minister announced the defeat of Daesh in Iraq on 9 December 2017. However there is still a risk of terrorist attacks and kidnap across the country. You should remain vigilant and monitor media reports.
The Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) held a referendum on independence from Iraq on 25 September 2017. This led to ongoing tension with Federal Iraq and in the region.
There have been reports of significant movements of military vehicles and personnel in Kirkuk and Ninewa provinces since 12 October 2017, which have included localised exchanges of fire. The situation remains fluid.
Coalition forces, including the UK, continue to carry out targeted airstrikes against Daesh in northern and western Iraq. Areas recently liberated from Daesh are likely to contain remnants of war and improvised explosive devices.
The security situation throughout Iraq remains uncertain, and could deteriorate quickly. You should monitor media reporting and make sure you have robust contingency plans in place.
Terrorists are very likely to try to carry out attacks in Iraq. There’s also a high kidnap threat. While attacks can take place at any time, there’s a heightened threat during religious or public holidays.
The government of Iraq is taking measures to improve the structural integrity of the Mosul Dam as there is a risk the dam could fail. It’s currently impossible to accurately predict if or when this might occur.
The British Embassy in Baghdad and the British Consulate-General in Erbil are able to offer limited consular assistance only.
If you’re abroad and you need emergency help from the UK government, contact the nearest British embassy, consulate or high commission.
According to Iraqi law you must get a visa before you travel. You can apply for a visa at Iraqi missions overseas.
Safety and security
British government officials serving in Iraq live and work under strict security rules. All British officials live in secure, guarded accommodation and travel with close protection teams at all times. Depending on the threat level, they may be prevented from travelling to certain areas of Iraq.
Hotels and guesthouses used by foreign nationals and the government of Iraq are subject to regular threats. The British embassy doesn’t allow official visitors to stay in a hotel overnight except in the Kurdistan Region, however attendance at meetings in hotels is assessed on case by case basis.
If you travel to areas of Iraq to which the FCO advise against all but essential travel, you should take appropriate security precautions before travelling. Outside of the Kurdistan Region you are strongly advised to employ a private security company, make arrangements for secure accommodation and transport and consider pre-deployment training.
Avoid demonstrations or large gatherings of people; if you become aware of any nearby violence, leave the area immediately.
As part of religious observations, processions and events take place throughout Iraq, especially in Karbala and Najaf. Religious gatherings have previously been targeted by terrorists.
The government of Iraq has begun to take measures to improve the structural integrity of the Mosul Dam as there is a risk the dam could fail. It’s currently impossible to accurately predict if or when this might occur. A failure could lead to major flooding in the Tigris river valley, from Mosul to Baghdad. As there’s likely to be little warning of a failure, it will be logistically impossible for the British Government to evacuate you. The British Embassy has contingency plans to make sure staff are safe in the event of failure. You should make sure you have contingency plans in place and monitor media reporting and this travel advice.
If you’re in in Baghdad, you should have robust contingency plans in place and continue to monitor media reporting. You should stay in close contact with your private security companies and monitor our travel advice pages. Routes in and out of Baghdad may become blocked and airports closed or inaccessible at little or no notice. You should plan and check your routes in advance of travelling.
There remains a threat to western hotels in Baghdad, which could be targeted by terrorist groups. Local Embassies have previously issued travel advice warnings of threats to western hotels in Baghdad. You should remain vigilant and follow the advice of the local authorities.
You should avoid political gatherings and large crowds, and minimise your movement around banks, restaurants and shopping malls. Observe instructions given by the local security authorities.
Turkey conducts periodic airstrikes in the far north of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI). Take extra care in mountainous areas, particularly near the border with Turkey. Crossing points along the Iraq-Turkey border may also be affected.
The Kurdistan Region is administered by the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG). The KRG held a referendum on independence from Iraq on 25 September 2017. This led to ongoing tensions in the region and in neighbouring areas, including Kirkuk Province. You should remain alert, monitor media reports and this travel advice.
While the Kurdistan Region has a different security environment to the rest of Iraq, there remains a risk of attacks by Daesh. The security situation in the Kurdistan Region could deteriorate quickly.
Following fighting in Ninewah province, large numbers of internally displaced people have travelled to Dohuk province in the Kurdistan Region, joining others already taking refuge there.
Foreign nationals crossing the border from Syria into the KRI have been arrested for immigration offences in recent months. If prosecuted offenders could face a prison sentence of up to 5 years.
There are no country-wide curfews at present, but curfews and vehicle bans can be enforced at short notice, particularly around religious holidays, pilgrimages and key political dates like elections.
Border crossing points with countries neighbouring Iraq may close with little or no notice. Check whether border crossings will be open before travelling through these areas.
Do not leave airports without taking adequate security precautions. You should also take care within all terminal buildings.
Iraqi Airways’ permission to operate to/from points in the EU has been suspended. This is because Iraqi Airways has been unable to satisfy the European Aviation Safety Agency that the airline meets the requirements for non-EU airlines operating to/from the EU. Iraqi Airways operates to several European destinations using aircraft leased [or hired] from other airlines.
Flight schedules may change without notice. Contact your airline or travel company for the latest information before travelling.
Maritime facilities are under a high risk of attack. Maritime and sailing craft should take great care in the northern Persian Gulf. Vessels transiting the Gulf of Oman, Northern Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden and Bab El Mandeb regions may be at increased risk of attack. You should consider any regional tensions that may affect your route.
Road travel within Iraq remains highly dangerous and there continue to be fatal roadside bombings and attacks on military and civilian vehicles. False vehicle checkpoints have been used to launch attacks. There is also a risk of carjacking and robbery.
Road traffic accidents are frequent and often result in fatalities.
The British Embassy in Baghdad and the British Consulate-General in Erbil operate a limited consular service by appointment only. The Embassy’s ability to visit locations across Iraq is limited and travel to unsecure areas to deliver consular services may not be possible.
Advice to business
A number of UK companies visit and operate successfully in Iraq. However, movement is restricted and companies nearly always travel with close protection security teams. Specific guidance for companies seeking to do business in Iraq can be found on the Department for International Trade (DIT) website. DIT are also able to put you in touch with companies operating in Iraq who offer security services. For more information see Operating in high-risk environments: Advice for business
Terrorists are very likely to try to carry out attacks in Iraq. In December 2017, Iraq’s Prime Minister declared that Daesh (formally referred to as ISIL) had been defeated in Iraq. However, the risk of terrorist attacks remains.
Extremist groups like Daesh (formerly referred to as ISIL) are responsible for the majority of attacks. Following Parliament’s support on 26 September 2014 for UK airstrikes against Daesh in Iraq, there is a heightened threat of attacks against western interests in Iraq.
Following Daesh’s expansion into the country in 2014, there have been numerous and frequent terrorist attacks, and levels of violence remain high. The UN has reported that at least 3,298 civilians were killed by terrorism and violence during 2017.
Attacks are more frequent in areas where Daesh had a strong presence and capability, such as Anbar, Baghdad, Ninewah, Salah-Al-Din, Diyala and Tam’mim (Kirkuk) provinces, but can and do occur throughout the entire country.
In Baghdad city, Daesh frequently targets the Iraqi government, security forces and Shia civilians. Attacks often result in high numbers of fatalities. Attacks have also occurred in the Kurdistan Region.
Targets for terrorist attacks have included: residential compounds, military establishments, oil facilities, airports, public transport, commercial venues, including markets and stores, maritime facilities, land border crossings, government buildings, hotels, restaurants, large crowds, police stations, party political offices/events, sports venues/stadiums and religious sites/ceremonies. While attacks can take place at any time, there’s a heightened threat during religious or public holidays.
Methods of attack have included shootings, large-scale co-ordinated bombings designed to cause mass casualties, suicide bombs, vehicle bombs, rockets and mortars.
Foreign nationals, including those of non-western appearance, are high value targets for terrorists, insurgents and criminals. Indiscriminate attacks against public places and Iraqi civilians also occur.
There’s a heightened threat of terrorist attack globally against UK interests and British nationals, from groups or individuals motivated by the conflict in Iraq and Syria. You should be vigilant at this time.
If you travel to Iraq to fight, and your activities amount to offences against UK terrorism legislation, you could be prosecuted on return to the UK.
There’s a high threat of kidnapping in Iraq from both Daesh and other terrorist and militant groups. Kidnappings can be for purely ideological reasons as well as financial or political gain, and can be motivated by criminality or terrorism. British nationals have previously been targeted. Individuals have been kidnapped from homes, workplaces and while travelling. Some hostages have died.
You should regularly reassess your security arrangements and consider carefully any travel around the country, especially when moving outside the International Zone in Baghdad. Close security protection is important but doesn’t remove the threat; a number of previous kidnap victims had security arrangements in place.
During a major Daesh offensive which began in June 2014, there was an increase in reported kidnappings by Daesh. The US Embassy has previously issued warnings over the risk of kidnapping attempts on the vehicles of non-governmental organisations staff providing aid to Mosul. Western nationals who come into contact with Daesh are likely to be seized and held as hostages.
The threat of kidnap is highest in areas where Daesh have a strong presence, but they are not the only group who may seek to take hostages. Western nationals who come into contact with Daesh are likely to be seized and held as hostages.
International and local journalists have previously been detained in Iraq due to allegations of inadequate paperwork. Journalists should exercise extreme caution and take adequate security measures.
Daesh is not the only group who may seek to take hostages.
Daesh and other terrorist groups view those engaged in humanitarian aid work or journalism as legitimate targets. If you’re kidnapped, the reason for your presence is unlikely to serve as a protection or secure your safe release.
The long-standing policy of the British government is not to make substantive concessions to hostage takers. The British government considers that paying ransoms and releasing prisoners increases the risk of further hostage taking.
Find out more about the global threat from terrorism, how to minimise your risk and what to do in the event of a terrorist attack.
Local laws and customs
Local laws reflect that Iraq is a predominantly Islamic country. You should respect local traditions, customs, laws and religious customs at all times, especially during the holy month of Ramadan or when visiting places of religious significance.
In 2018, the holy month of Ramadan is expected to start on 16 May and finish on 14 June.
Although homosexuality is not illegal under Iraqi law, the LGBT community generally keeps a low profile, making it difficult to assess its size or relative freedoms. Local attitudes towards LGBT people may be hostile. There have also been reports of individuals being targeted by extremists. You’re advised to exercise discretion. See our information and advice page for the LGBT community before you travel.
The information on this page covers the most common types of travel and reflects the UK government’s understanding of the rules currently in place. Unless otherwise stated, this information is for travellers using a full ‘British Citizen’ passport.
The authorities in the country or territory you’re travelling to are responsible for setting and enforcing the rules for entry. If you’re unclear about any aspect of the entry requirements, or you need further reassurance, you’ll need to contact the embassy, high commission or consulate of the country or territory you’re travelling to.
You should also consider checking with your transport provider or travel company to make sure your passport and other travel documents meet their requirements.
According to Iraqi law you must get a visa before you travel, including for travel to the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. You can apply for a visa at the Iraqi Embassy in London or the Iraqi Consulate in Manchester.
Make sure you have the right documents when you arrive in Iraq, including Weapon Authority Cards (WAC) if you are carrying weapons.
Foreign nationals have been arrested for failing to provide the correct documentation when requested. For more information contact the Iraqi Embassy in London.
Your passport should be valid for a minimum period of 6 months from the date of entry into Iraq.
Yellow fever certificate requirements
Check whether you need a yellow fever certificate by visiting the National Travel Health Network and Centre’s TravelHealthPro website.
UK Emergency Travel Documents
UK Emergency Travel Documents (ETDs) are not valid for entry into Iraq. However, ETDs are accepted for airside transit and exit from Iraq. If you’re using an ETD to leave the country, you’ll need to get an exit stamp from the Baghdad or Erbil Residency Office.
If you remain in the country for more than 10 days without extending your visa, you’ll need to get an exit stamp to leave the country.
Your sponsor (for example the company you work for) must apply for the exit visa to the Residency and Immigration Office, which is part of the Ministry of Interior. Your sponsor will need to submit letters to the Immigration Office stating the start and end date of employment.
All visitors to Iraq, with the exception of those travelling on a tourist visa, must have a blood test for HIV and hepatitis within 10 days of arrival. The test must then be repeated every 90 days while you’re in Iraq. Guidance on where to go for the blood test is available at the airport when you arrive.
Visit your health professional at least 4 to 6 weeks before your trip to check whether you need any vaccinations or other preventive measures.
Check the latest country-specific information and advice from the National Travel Health Network and Centre (NaTHNaC) on the TravelHealthPro website or from NHS (Scotland) on the fitfortravel website. Useful information and advice about healthcare abroad is also available on the NHS Choices website.
There was an outbreak of avian influenza (bird flu) among birds and poultry in Iraq at the end of 2017 but the risk to humans is believed to be very low. You should follow the advice of the National Travel health Network and Centre.
Medical facilities are limited. In the event of serious accident or illness, an evacuation by air ambulance may be required. Make sure you have adequate travel health insurance and accessible funds to cover the cost of any medical treatment abroad and repatriation.
The temperature in summer months can exceed 50 ºC (122ºF), which can result in dehydration and serious health problems.
Iraq sits on active seismic zone and there is a risk of tremors and earthquakes. An earthquake of magnitude 7.3 struck the Iran-Iraq border on 12 November 2017 near Sulaimaniyah and Halabja, and was felt across Iraq, including Baghdad.
Travel advice help and support
If you’re abroad and you need emergency help from the UK government, contact the nearest British embassy, consulate or high commission. If you need urgent help because something has happened to a friend or relative abroad, contact the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) in London on 020 7008 1500 (24 hours).
Foreign travel checklist
Read our foreign travel checklist to help you plan for your trip abroad and stay safe while you’re there.
The FCO travel advice helps you make your own decisions about foreign travel. Your safety is our main concern, but we can’t provide tailored advice for individual trips. If you’re concerned about whether or not it’s safe for you to travel, you should read the travel advice for the country or territory you’re travelling to, together with information from other sources you’ve identified, before making your own decision on whether to travel. Only you can decide whether it’s safe for you to travel.
When we judge the level of risk to British nationals in a particular place has become unacceptably high, we’ll state on the travel advice page for that country or territory that we advise against all or all but essential travel. Read more about how the FCO assesses and categorises risk in foreign travel advice.
Our crisis overseas page suggests additional things you can do before and during foreign travel to help you stay safe.
Refunds and cancellations
If you wish to cancel or change a holiday that you’ve booked, you should contact your travel company. The question of refunds and cancellations is a matter for you and your travel company. Travel companies make their own decisions about whether or not to offer customers a refund. Many of them use our travel advice to help them reach these decisions, but we do not instruct travel companies on when they can or can’t offer a refund to their customers.
For more information about your rights if you wish to cancel a holiday, visit the Citizen’s Advice Bureau website. For help resolving problems with a flight booking, visit the website of the Civil Aviation Authority. For questions about travel insurance, contact your insurance provider and if you’re not happy with their response, you can complain to the Financial Ombudsman Service.
Registering your travel details with us
We’re no longer asking people to register with us before travel. Our foreign travel checklist and crisis overseas page suggest things you can do before and during foreign travel to plan your trip and stay safe.
Previous versions of FCO travel advice
If you’re a British national and you have a question about travelling abroad that isn’t covered in our foreign travel advice or elsewhere on GOV.UK, you can submit an enquiry. We’re not able to provide tailored advice for specific trips.