South Sudan travel guide
About South Sudan
There’s off-piste, and then there’s South Sudan. Officially the world’s newest nation, its poor infrastructure and volatile political climate will deter most from visiting this fledgling nation. But the intrepid few who do visit will discover some of the least known and most extreme natural phenomena on Earth.
After a messy divorce from Sudan in 2011, the South Sudanese people are fiercely proud of their hard-fought independence and both surprised and pleased when someone choses to visit.
Somewhat chaotic, and growing rapidly, the capital, Juba, has a superb location on the banks of the White Nile. Founded in the 1920s, it exhibits some excellent examples of British colonial architecture around the Hai Jalaba district, though most visitors will want to leave man-made structures behind and head for the country’s natural wonders.
The vast swampy Sudd region, known locally as Bahr el Jebel or “Mountain Sea” is where the Nile forms one of the world’s largest inland wetlands. A habitat safe from poachers for large populations of hippos, it is a unique experience to explore its vast islands of reeds by canoe.
Boma National Park not only boasts large populations of Africa’s most iconic wildlife species, including elephant, giraffe and lion, but also the greatest migration of mammals on Earth, when an estimated two million grazing animals flee en mass for pastures new. The region is also renowned for its traditional tribal homesteads, which dot the plains.
Not content with rivers, swamps and savannah, South Sudan’s natural prowess extends to the Imatong Mountains, and the star attraction here is Kinyeti, the highest mountain in the country at 3,200m (10,500ft).
The South Sudanese consider their homeland blessed and it’s hard to disagree when you see the sheer diversity of natural landscapes the country has to offer. Road travel can be uncomfortable, but the end result is certainly well worth any hardship.
644,329 sq km (248,777 sq miles).
12,733,427 (UN estimate 2016).
18.7 per sq km.
President Salva Kiir Mayardit since 2011.
President Salva Kiir Mayardit since 2011.
The Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office (FCDO) advise against all travel to South Sudan.
If you choose to travel to South Sudan against FCDO advice, exercise caution and vigilance at all times and avoid any travel during the hours of darkness. You should make sure you have comprehensive contingency plans that don’t rely on support from the Embassy, including a stock of essential supplies and up-to-date travel documents and visas. If you’re concerned about your safety, you should contact the FCDO on +44 207 008 5000.
Before you travel, check the ‘Entry requirements’ section for South Sudan’s current entry restrictions and requirements. These may change with little warning. Monitor this advice for the latest updates and stay in contact with your travel provider.
If you plan to pass through another country to return to the UK, check the travel advice for the country you’re transiting.
It is more important than ever to get travel insurance and check it provides sufficient cover. See the FCDO’s guidance on foreign travel insurance.
Consular support is severely limited in South Sudan. The British Embassy in Juba does not have a consular section. If you are in South Sudan and need urgent help from the UK Government, contact the British High Commission in Nairobi.
You should be vigilant of the local security situation, monitor the local media, and stay in a safe location. Advice to travellers remains that you should avoid all protests and large gatherings and follow the instructions of local authorities and security services. Most international organisations in South Sudan employ a security manager to monitor the situation and keep employees safe.
A ceasefire is currently in place, and has largely held since September 2018. However, there are regular reports of intercommunal violence in some areas of the country, as well as sporadic reports of fighting between armed groups. Serious criminality in Juba, and other urban areas, particularly during the hours of darkness, is also a regular concern. A deterioration in the security situation remains possible, and could be prompted by a number of factors including developments in the fragile economy and the ongoing peace process.
In the event of a serious deterioration in the security situation, similar to those of July 2016 and December 2013, routes into and out of South Sudan may be blocked. Juba airport may be closed or inaccessible, and flights may be suspended at short notice. Regional developments may also increase the unpredictability of infrastructure and transport, as happened in April 2019 when events in Sudan led to the temporary closure of South Sudan’s airspace.
The main road connecting Juba to Uganda is extremely dangerous, with regular reports of accidents and attacks on vehicles by armed groups. See Safety and Security. The border has now reopened following the lifting of restrictions in place in the region in response to COVID-19. To enter Uganda from South Sudan, you’ll need the appropriate visa, and either (i) proof of fully vaccinated status or (ii) a negative COVID-19 PCR certificate issued no more than 72 hours before departure. Children under 5 years old are exempt from these requirements.
Terrorist attacks in South Sudan can’t be ruled out. See Terrorism
Coronavirus travel health
Check the latest information on risk from COVID-19 for South Sudan on the TravelHealthPro website
See the TravelHealthPro website for further advice on travel abroad and reducing spread of respiratory viruses during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Commercial flights are operating to and from South Sudan to some regional countries. There are no direct flights to the UK. You should check with airlines to confirm frequency and any transit requirements. You should also consult Travel Advice pages for any requirements in the destination or transit country.
Entry and borders
See Entry requirements to find out more detail and information on what you will need to do when you arrive in South Sudan.
Travelling from and returning to the UK
Check what you must do to travel abroad and return to England, Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland.
If you plan to pass through another country to return to the UK, check the travel advice for the country you’re transiting.
Be prepared for your plans to change
No travel is risk-free during COVID-19. Countries may further restrict travel or bring in new rules at short notice, for example due to a new COVID-19 variant. Check with your travel company or airline for any transport changes which may delay your journey home.
If you test positive for COVID-19, you may need to stay where you are until you test negative. You may also need to seek treatment there.
Plan ahead and make sure you:
- can access money
- understand what your insurance will cover
- can make arrangements to extend your stay and be away for longer than planned
Travel in South Sudan
On public transport and internal flights, passengers are required to wear face masks.
Public places and services
There are no lockdown measures currently in place in South Sudan, and restrictions on social gatherings have been lifted. The National COVID-19 Taskforce recommends: the use of facemasks in public places, particularly in health facilities; frequent handwashing; social distancing in mass gatherings; and avoiding hand shaking and hugging, in addition to vaccination against COVID-19.
Healthcare in South Sudan
If you think you have COVID-19 symptoms, you should self-isolate and report any suspected case to the nearest health facility.
Testing capacity in South Sudan is extremely limited and results are subject to significant delay.
Your emotional and mental wellbeing is important. Read guidance on how to look after your mental wellbeing and mental health.
View Health for further details on healthcare in South Sudan.
See also the guidance on healthcare if you’re waiting to return to the UK.
For information on financial support you can access whilst abroad, visit our financial assistance guidance.
If you need urgent consular assistance, you can contact the British High Commission in Nairobi. You can call British High Commission Nairobi on +254 (0) 20 2873000 or +254 (0) 20 2844000. Consular support is severely limited in South Sudan. The British Embassy in Juba does not have a consular section.
The security situation across South Sudan remains volatile. Weapons are plentiful and easily obtained in South Sudan and criminals are often armed. Many armed actors who are without jobs or have not been paid are resorting to criminality. Drive-by thefts by individuals or groups on motorbikes have been reported.
South Sudan is an extremely difficult environment for businesses and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) to operate in. Although the number of aid workers killed in targeted attacks has reduced in recent years, South Sudan remains one of the most dangerous operating environments for aid workers in the world. Incidents of violence, intimidation, arbitrary detentions and kidnappings are reported, although these have mostly affected South Sudanese or regional nationals. The FCDO advise against all travel to South Sudan, however if you decide to travel, you should make sure you have carefully considered the threat and have reasonable, proportionate mitigation measures in place.
During the rainy season (April to October/November) most roads outside of Juba become impassable, and some parts of the country can become inaccessible.
There are regular reports of intercommunal violence in some parts of the country, and there are sporadic reports of fighting between armed groups in certain areas. Criminal attacks have taken place on the main Juba-Nimule road, which is one of the main supply routes from Uganda into South Sudan. There are reports of mines and unexploded ordnance in parts of the country.
If you’re currently in South Sudan you should exercise your own judgment, based on your knowledge of the local situation, media reporting, or advice from the UN. Our advice is that you should leave South Sudan immediately if it’s safe to do so.
Our ability to provide assistance outside Juba is severely limited. If you’re concerned about your safety, you should contact the FCDO on +44 207 008 5000 or you can submit an enquiry.
Driving conditions and standards in South Sudan are well below those in the UK and other European countries. Very few roads are surfaced and maintained, particularly outside Juba. Residential areas usually have dirt roads. At night, there is almost no street lighting and many vehicles have no lights. Roads are used by pedestrians, donkey-carts and rickshaw-style cabs, as well as motor vehicles. Checkpoints, manned by armed men, are common around Juba, especially after dark. There are regular reports of money being demanded from drivers, and of people (especially women) being physically abused at these checkpoints.
The use of public transport should be avoided, due to the unsafe condition of vehicles, the regular occurrence of road traffic accidents (particularly on the Juba-Nimule road), and the high risk of robbery or assault on foreign nationals.
Although drivers should have a licence and insurance, many don’t have these. Make sure you have adequate insurance.
You can find a list of incidents and accidents on the website of the Aviation Safety network.
The FCDO can’t offer advice on the safety of every individual airline, but the International Air Transport Association publishes a list of registered airlines that have been audited and found to meet a number of operational safety standards and recommended practices.
This list isn’t exhaustive and the absence of an airline from this list doesn’t necessarily mean that it is unsafe.
Following 5 years of internal conflict a peace agreement was signed in 2018 which has led to a significant reduction in violence; but slow and uneven implementation mean that the political and security situation remains volatile. The impact of the conflict, at both a national and local level, combined with a series of natural disasters (including flooding) drives a dire humanitarian situation across the country.
If you choose to remain in the country, maintain a high level of vigilance, follow political developments closely, and observe any curfews in place. In the event of civil disorder, stay at home and restrict your movements as much as possible, especially after dark. You should avoid all protests, political rallies and large gatherings, monitor developments closely and follow the instructions of local authorities and security services.
There are credible reports of border incursions and engagements involving armed actors along all of South Sudan’s frontiers, and you should exercise extreme caution in the country’s border areas. A US-UK journalist was killed in August 2017 near the town of Kaya close to the Ugandan border during a gunfight between government forces and armed rebels.
Terrorist attacks in South Sudan can’t be ruled out. Attacks could be indiscriminate, including in places visited by foreigners.
UK Counter Terrorism Policing has information and advice on staying safe abroad and what to do in the event of a terrorist attack. Find out how to reduce your risk from terrorism while abroad.
The long-standing policy of the British government is not to make substantive concessions to hostage takers. The British government considers that paying ransoms and releasing prisoners increases the risk of further hostage taking.
There is a high threat of terrorist attack globally affecting UK interests and British nationals, including from groups and individuals who view the UK and British nationals as targets. You should remain vigilant at all times.
You should respect local traditions, customs, laws and religions at all times and be aware of your actions to ensure that they do not offend other cultures or religious beliefs, especially if you intend to visit religious areas. In particular, you should closely observe the new laws and restrictions imposed to prevent the spread of coronavirus (COVID-19).
Carry a form of photo identification with you at all times, including colour copies to hand over to immigration or traffic police if required.
There are severe penalties for drug trafficking in South Sudan.
Do not take photographs close to government buildings, military installations, public utilities (including petrol stations), and other sensitive areas (bridges, airports). Many plain clothes public security officers operate in Juba and across South Sudan.
British nationals have in the past been arrested over commercial disputes, even where the individual has no direct link to the ongoing dispute. Some others have been approached with fraudulent commercial scams. There have been reports of harassment, temporary detention and expulsion of foreign nationals including NGO staff and journalists entering and leaving Juba airport by South Sudan security services, often linked to visa and work permit issues. You should exercise caution at all times.
Society is socially conservative. Homosexuality and extra marital relations are not culturally accepted.
This page has information on travelling to South Sudan.
This page reflects the UK government’s understanding of current rules for people travelling on a full ‘British Citizen’ passport from the UK, for the most common types of travel.
The authorities in South Sudan set and enforce entry rules. If you’re unsure how South Sudan’s entry requirements apply to you, contact its UK embassy, high commission or consulate.
South Sudan has reopened its land borders but all travellers should check restrictions in place from neighbouring countries.
If you’re fully vaccinated
If you’re fully vaccinated, you must present evidence of having completed a full course of a COVID-19 vaccinations with WHO Emergency Use Listing (EUL) upon arrival. Fully vaccinated travellers are not required to have a negative PCR test certificate.
If you arrive in South Sudan with COVID-19 symptoms you will be given a rapid diagnostic test. This applies to fully vaccinated travellers and travellers with a negative PCR test certificate. A positive result will be taken as confirmed COVID-19, and case management and contact tracing protocols will be followed. Confirmed COVID-19 cases will be required to undergo a 10 day home isolation. Negative results will be confirmed using a PCR test. At present, no fees are charged.
Proof of vaccination status
You should bring a printed version of the UK’s proof of COVID-19vaccination record. Your NHS appointment card from vaccination centres is not designed to be used as proof of vaccination and should not be used to demonstrate your vaccine status.
If you’re not fully vaccinated
If you’re not fully vaccinated, you must have a negative PCR test certificate showing you are free from COVID-19, issued no more than 72 hours in advance of your arrival time in South Sudan. A hard or soft copy of the PCR test certificate is required from a recognised laboratory from the country of origin. Children below the age of 5 years are not required to show proof of a negative PCR test certificate.
If you’ve had COVID-19 in the past 6 months
If you’re not fully vaccinated and cannot provide a negative test result because you have tested positive for COVID-19 in the last 6 months, you can enter South Sudan and are exempt from quarantine on arrival. You will need to show evidence of the UK’s proof of COVID-19 recovery from within the last 6 months. It is recommended that you bring this in hard copy. Children and young people
Children below the age of 5 years who are not fully vaccinated are not required to show proof of a negative PCR test certificate to enter South Sudan.
If you’re transiting through South Sudan
Transiting is when you pass through one country on the way to your final destination.
Commercial flights are operating to and from South Sudan to some regional countries. There are no direct flights to the UK. You should check directly with airlines to confirm their flight schedules and any transit requirements. You should also consult Travel Advice pages for any requirements in your destination country or any country through which you are transiting, as requirements vary considerably.
Check your passport and travel documents before you travel
Your passport should be valid for a minimum period of six months from the date of entry into South Sudan.
You will need a visa to enter or travel through South Sudan as a visitor. You should contact the Embassy of South Sudan in London. Visa applications are available online.
Visas are valid for 1 month. If you wish to stay in South Sudan for longer than 1 month you’ll need to apply for an extension at the Ministry of Interior in Juba (although visas and visa extensions are currently not being issued due to coronavirus (COVID-19) measures now in place). You should also consider whether you require a work permit while in South Sudan. If in doubt you should contact the Ministry of Labour in Juba. You must register with the local police station if you’re in South Sudan for longer than 4 days.
Yellow fever certificate requirements
Although the World Health Organisation doesn’t specify a certificate requirement, you’re required to provide a certificate of vaccination against yellow fever when you apply for your visa. You should also bring a hard copy of this certificate to present upon arrival into South Sudan.
Returning to the UK
Travellers departing South Sudan will be asked to present evidence that you are not required to hold a negative PCR test certificate or evidence of vaccination for entry into England, Scotland, Wales of Ireland. You should We recommend bringing a hard copy of the official guidance as evidence. Check what you must do to return to the UK.
If you have a health condition, or you are pregnant, you may need specialist healthcare abroad. Check whether your destination country can provide the healthcare you may need and ensure you have appropriate travel insurance for unexpected medical evacuation or local treatment.
See the Coronavirus travel health and Healthcare sections in the Coronavirus page for COVID-19 health information.
At least 8 weeks before your trip, check the latest country-specific health advice from the National Travel Health Network and Centre (NaTHNaC) on the TravelHealthPro website. Each country-specific page has information on vaccine recommendations, any current health risks or outbreaks, and factsheets with information on staying healthy abroad. Guidance is also available from NHS (Scotland) on the FitForTravel website. Although there have been no confirmed cases of Ebola (EVD) in South Sudan, there have recently been confirmed cases in North Kivu province in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. You should monitor the NaTHNaC website for the latest updates.
General information on travel vaccinations and a travel health checklist are available on the NHS website. You may then wish to contact your health adviser or pharmacy for advice on other preventive measures and managing any pre-existing medical conditions while you’re abroad.
The legal status and regulation of some medicines prescribed or purchased in the UK can be different in other countries. If you’re travelling with prescription or over-the-counter medicine, read this guidance from NaTHNaC on best practice when travelling with medicines. For further information on the legal status of a specific medicine, you’ll need to contact the embassy, high commission or consulate of the country or territory you’re travelling to.
There are clear links between mental and physical health, so looking after yourself during travel and when abroad is important. Information on travelling with mental health conditions is available in our guidance page. Further information is also available from the National Travel Health Network and Centre (NaTHNaC).
Public Health England has updated its guidance for humanitarian or healthcare workers travelling to countries at risk of Ebola.
Health facilities are extremely limited - throughout South Sudan. Serious medical problems require medical evacuation to Nairobi or Kampala. During the rainy season flights are often forced to remain on the ground for hours.
Make sure you have adequate travel health insurance and accessible funds to cover the cost of any treatment abroad, medical evacuation and repatriation.
South Sudan suffers from both drought and flash flooding, which can make some parts of the country inaccessible by road.
Credit/debit cards are accepted in some hotels and supermarkets. ATMs are scarce and not always reliable for international card use. It is advisable to bring large denomination US Dollars (clean, unblemished notes dated 2009 onwards) and change them at supermarkets or hotels. Juba is comparatively expensive; one night’s accommodation in an international standard hotel can be up to $200.
If you’re abroad and you need emergency help from the UK government, contact the nearest British embassy, consulate or high commission. If you need urgent help because something has happened to a friend or relative abroad, contact the FCDO in London on 020 7008 5000 (24 hours).
Foreign travel checklist
Read our foreign travel checklist to help you plan for your trip abroad and stay safe while you’re there.
The FCDO travel advice helps you make your own decisions about foreign travel. Your safety is our main concern, but we can’t provide tailored advice for individual trips. If you’re concerned about whether or not it’s safe for you to travel, you should read the travel advice for the country or territory you’re travelling to, together with information from other sources you’ve identified, before making your own decision on whether to travel. Only you can decide whether it’s safe for you to travel.
When we judge the level of risk to British nationals in a particular place has become unacceptably high, we’ll state on the travel advice page for that country or territory that we advise against all or all but essential travel. Read more about how the FCDO assesses and categorises risk in foreign travel advice.
Our crisis overseas page suggests additional things you can do before and during foreign travel to help you stay safe.
Refunds and cancellations
If you wish to cancel or change a holiday that you’ve booked, you should contact your travel company. The question of refunds and cancellations is a matter for you and your travel company. Travel companies make their own decisions about whether or not to offer customers a refund. Many of them use our travel advice to help them reach these decisions, but we do not instruct travel companies on when they can or can’t offer a refund to their customers.
For more information about your rights if you wish to cancel a holiday, visit the Citizen’s Advice Bureau website. For help resolving problems with a flight booking, visit the website of the Civil Aviation Authority. For questions about travel insurance, contact your insurance provider and if you’re not happy with their response, you can complain to the Financial Ombudsman Service.
Registering your travel details with us
We’re no longer asking people to register with us before travel. Our foreign travel checklist and crisis overseas page suggest things you can do before and during foreign travel to plan your trip and stay safe.
Previous versions of FCDO travel advice
If you’re looking for a previous version of the FCDO travel advice, visit the National Archives website. Versions prior to 2 September 2020 will be archived as FCO travel advice. If you can’t find the page you’re looking for there, send the Travel Advice team a request.
If you’re a British national and you have a question about travelling abroad that isn’t covered in our foreign travel advice or elsewhere on GOV.UK, you can submit an enquiry. We’re not able to provide tailored advice for specific trips.