World Travel Guide > Guides > Asia > Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan travel guide

About Turkmenistan

It’s an accomplished geographer who can confidently point to Turkmenistan on a map. Despite being similar in size to Spain, this Central Asian nation remains well under most people’s radar.

There are two reasons for this. One is that Turkmenistan is a country comprised largely of barren desert and untamed terrain – hardly a big draw for tourists. But the main reason for its obscurity can be traced to Turkmenistan’s autocratic government, which has been compared to the regime of North Korea.

At the helm of this ex-Soviet state is President Berdymukhamedov, who promotes a Kim Jong-un style personality cult in which he and his inner circle enjoy absolute power over every aspect of life. Consequently, according to Human Rights Watch, Turkmenistan is one of the most repressed countries in the world, a place where "human rights defenders and other activists face the constant threat of government reprisals.”

If you’re not put off by repressive regimes, Turkmenistan is a destination that offers one thing most others don’t: the chance to travel across the country without seeing other travellers. The isolation is palpable.

The brave few who do make it here usually arrive via the capital, Ashgabat. This modern city was built in 1948 after an earthquake destroyed the previous incarnation. Visitors can learn more about this devastating event at the touching Earthquake Museum, one of the city’s finer attractions.

Many of Ashgabat’s other landmarks take on a Soviet flavour – Independence Square, the Arch of Neutrality, numerous Lenin statues – but there are also mosques, galleries and gardens. The Altyn Asyr bazaar is worth a visit too, especially if you’re in the market for a Turkmen carpet.

Outside the capital, almost all of the country’s attractions lie around the fringes of the desert. Some of the world’s most powerful empires settled here and their crumbling legacies can be seen at the Parthian Fortress of Nisa, Kunya-Urgench and Merv, which are all UNESCO-listed World Heritage Sites. And quiet ones at that.

Key facts


488,100 sq km (188,456 sq miles).


5,438,670 (UN estimate 2016).

Population density:

10.7 per sq km.





Head of state:

President Serdar Berdymukhammedov since 2022.

Head of government:

President Serdar Berdymukhammedov since 2022.

Travel Advice

Before you travel, check the ‘Entry requirements’ section for Turkmenistan’s current entry restrictions and requirements. These may change with little warning. Monitor this advice for the latest updates and stay in contact with your travel provider.

If you plan to pass through another country to return to the UK, check the travel advice for the country you’re transiting.

It is more important than ever to get travel insurance and check it provides sufficient cover. See the FCDO’s guidance on foreign travel insurance.

Although there’s no recent history of terrorism in Turkmenistan, attacks can’t be ruled out. See Terrorism.

You should carry identification at all times. The police often carry out checks.

Visa requirements are strict. You should contact the Turkmen Embassy in London well in advance of travel. If you are staying for more than 3 days, you will also need to register with the State Migration Service. Don’t overstay your visa. See Entry requirements.

If you need to contact the emergency services, call 01 (from landline) or 001 (from mobile) for fire, 02 (from landline) 002 (from mobile) for police, and 03 (from landline) 003 (from mobile) for an ambulance.

If you’re abroad and you need emergency help from the UK government, contact the nearest British embassy, consulate or high commission.

Coronavirus travel health

Check the latest information on risk from COVID-19 for Turkmenistan on the TravelHealthPro website.

See the TravelHealthPro website for further advice on travel abroad and reducing spread of respiratory viruses during the COVID-19 pandemic.

International travel

Some regular international commercial flights are now operating in and out of the country, tickets are available to purchase online. Please contact the airlines regarding the ticketing procedures.

Check what you must do to return to the UK.

Entry and borders

See Entry requirements to find out what you will need to do when you arrive in Turkmenistan.

Be prepared for your plans to change

No travel is risk-free during COVID-19. Countries may further restrict travel or bring in new rules at short notice, for example due to a new COVID-19 variant. Check with your travel company or airline for any transport changes which may delay your journey home.

If you test positive for COVID-19, you may need to stay where you are until you test negative. You may also need to seek treatment there.

Plan ahead and make sure you:

  • can access money
  • understand what your insurance will cover
  • can make arrangements to extend your stay and be away for longer than planned

Travel in Turkmenistan

Restrictions have been lifted on road travel within Turkmenistan. All road borders are open to foreigners. For any overland travel into Turkmenistan, you will need a visa and letter of invitation (LOI) to enter or travel through Turkmenistan as a visitor. All foreigners must specify the entry point in the LOI.

The International Seaport of Turkmenistan at Turkmenbashi is open to passenger traffic.

There are traffic police check points around major population centres, including Ashgabat, and road users may be subject to temperature screening.

Some regular international commercial flights are now operating in and out of the country, tickets are available to purchase online. Please contact the airlines regarding the ticketing procedures.

Domestic flights are operational. Passengers may be subjected to temperature checks.

Rail services are operational.

If you need urgent consular assistance, you can contact the British Embassy on +993 12 36 34 62/64.


Hotels remain open with no restrictive measures in place.

Public spaces and services

You may be requested to wear a mask in hospitals or doctors’ clinics.

Healthcare in Turkmenistan

If you think you have COVID-19 symptoms, you should consult your visa sponsor (e.g. your employer) in the first instance.

For contact details for English speaking doctors visit our list of healthcare providers.

Your emotional and mental wellbeing is important. Read guidance on how to look after your mental wellbeing and mental health.

View Health for further details on healthcare in Turkmenistan.


For information on financial support you can access whilst abroad, visit our financial assistance guidance.

Further information

If you need urgent consular assistance, you should contact your local British embassy, high commission or consulate.

Although there’s no recent history of terrorism in Turkmenistan, attacks can’t be ruled out.

There is a high threat of terrorist attack globally affecting UK interests and British nationals, including from groups and individuals who view the UK and British nationals as targets. You should remain vigilant at all times.

UK Counter Terrorism Policing has information and advice on staying safe abroad and what to do in the event of a terrorist attack. Find out how to reduce your risk from terrorism while abroad.

You should be aware of the global risk of indiscriminate terrorist attacks, which could be in public places, including those visited by foreigners.


Incidents of mugging, theft and pick pocketing are rare, but take sensible precautions and keep valuables out of sight. You should avoid going out alone late at night as after midnight the police and security forces are suspicious of people on the streets. Unaccompanied women in particular may draw their attention.

Local travel

Turkmen border crossings can be subject to occasional and unannounced closures.

Certain areas of the country, particularly border areas, are designated restricted zones and require special permission to enter. The borders with Afghanistan and Iran are particularly sensitive. Ashgabat, the Caspian port of Turkmenbashi, and the ancient Silk Road city of Merv/Mary are not in restricted areas. Check with your local tour guide before travelling outside the capital.

Road travel

There are traffic police check points around major population centres, including Ashgabat, and road users may be subject to temperature screening.

You can use a UK driving licence to drive in Turkmenistan for the duration of your stay. Alternatively, you can use a 1968 International Driving Permit (IDP). IDPs can be purchased over the counter from UK Post Offices. You will not be able to buy an IDP outside the UK, so get one before you travel. If you move permanently to Turkmenistan you will need to take a three month training course and apply for a Turkmen driving licence to the Road Safety Directorate of the Ministry of Interior.

Driving standards are poor. Road travel at night outside cities is particularly dangerous because of the condition of the roads. There is a 60kmh speed limit in much of Ashgabat, enforced by both static speed cameras and police with mobile speed cameras. There are no signs warning that speed cameras are in use.

Seat belts, if fitted, should be worn at all times.

Licensed taxis are clearly identified and are white or yellow in colour. Although taxis have meters, drivers will usually ask foreign nationals for a set fee of around 20 Manat. Taxis from the airport cost more. Some taxis might also ask for payment in dollars. You should be cautious about this as it’s against the law. Most taxi drivers do not speak much English. Don’t use unlicensed taxis.

Rail travel

Rail services are operational.

Air travel 

We can’t offer advice on the safety of individual airlines. However, the International Air Transport Association publishes a list of registered airlines that have been audited and found to meet a number of operational safety standards and recommended practices. This list is not exhaustive and the absence of an airline from this list does not necessarily mean that it is unsafe.

You are advised to check the UK Air Safety List when flying with foreign air carriers.  The Civil Aviation Authority UK Air Safety List (ASL) identifies foreign airlines which do not meet international safety standards. These airlines are banned from operating commercial air services to, from, and within the UK. You should:

  • Use the list to inform your decisions on which air carriers to use when flying overseas.
  • Consult local travel providers to find alternative air routes or other means of travel, e.g. road or rail.

In 2010, the International Civil Aviation Organisation carried out an audit of the level of implementation of the critical elements of safety oversight in Turkmenistan.

A list of incidents and accidents in Turkmenistan can be found on the website of the Aviation Safety network.

It is not clear whether maintenance procedures are always properly observed on internal flights.

Political situation

The political situation is calm. Nonetheless, there is traditionally a relatively high level of security in Turkmenistan.


There is a single state-owned mobile telephone provider, Altyn Asyr, which uses the TM CELL brand. Altyn Asyr doesn’t provide a roaming service and the quality of the network is low.


Internet connections outside the larger hotels can be unreliable and many social media and sites, including YouTube, Twitter and Facebook, are blocked. Some messaging Apps, such as Whatsapp, are also blocked. Access to Yahoo, gmail and hotmail is often difficult. VPNs are illegal in Turkmenistan, and are usually blocked as soon as the authorities identify them.

Possession and use of drugs is illegal. If you are found guilty, you could face a lengthy prison sentence in very basic conditions.

Police sometimes carry out checks of identity documents. You should carry a copy of the details page of your passport at all times. Keep your passport separately in a safe place.

Male homosexual activity is illegal, punishable by a custodial sentence. Homosexuality is still very much disapproved of socially. You should take care over public displays of affection. See our information and advice page for the LGBT community before you travel.

There remain sensitivities around relationships between foreign men and local women, and the Turkmen authorities are known to take action against both. For foreign nationals this can result in a fine and deportation from the country.

Photographing official buildings is forbidden. Check before taking photographs near potentially sensitive sites such as airports, military barracks, police stations, government buildings, embassies and the Presidential Palace. The Turkmen can also be sensitive about pictures being taken in the Teke, Russian and Tolkuchka bazaars in Ashgabat.

It is against the law to smoke outside in Turkmenistan; this law extends to restaurants and other communal spaces (unless they contain a designated smoking area). No more than 2 packets of 20 cigarettes per person, 2 cigars and 2 packets of loose tobacco not weighing more than 2 packets of cigarettes can be imported. It is against the law to give tobacco products as a gift; if you are caught you could be fined. You can import up to a maximum of 1.5 litres of alcohol.

All foreign visitors, with the exception of accredited diplomats, are charged a “tourism tax” of 2 US dollars for each day of their stay in Turkmenistan. Hotels include the tax as a separate item on guests’ hotel bills.

This page has information on travelling to Turkmenistan.

This page reflects the UK government’s understanding of current rules for people travelling on a full ‘British Citizen’ passport from the UK, for the most common types of travel.

The authorities in Turkmenistan set and enforce entry rules. If you’re unsure how Turkmenistan’s entry requirements apply to you, contact its UK embassy, high commission or consulate.

All travellers

Most international scheduled commercial flights to and from Turkmenistan have been suspended.

You will need a visa and letter of invitation (LOI) to enter or travel through Turkmenistan as a visitor.

You should consult the Turkmen Embassy in London well in advance of your intended travel date. All visa applications made at Turkmen Embassies in the UK and overseas are referred to Ashgabat for a decision. This can take 20 days or more. There is an accelerated 24 hour service, but a supplementary fee of approximately US$150 will be charged.

You will need a letter of invitation (LOI), certified by the State Migration Service of Turkmenistan, from a private individual or company to support your application. For tourists, these can be obtained from authorised travel agents. A list is available from the British Embassy in Ashgabat. Those travelling on business for the first time must obtain letters from relevant ministries, departments or companies they wish to co-operate with, unless the visit is made to attend an exhibition or other event, in which case the organiser normally provides visa support.

Without prior approval from the Turkmen authorities, it is not possible to enter Turkmenistan. It is possible to buy a visa on arrival at either Ashgabat and Turkmenabad airports or the ferry port at Turkmenbashi but only if you have approval from the Turkmenistan Migration Service before arrival. If you break your journey or try to enter Turkmenistan without the right visa you will face a long and uncomfortable wait in the offices of the Immigration Service at the airport or ferry port.

In addition to a visa fee, there are charges of up to US$150 for vehicles entering Turkmenistan by either land or sea. These can include elements for disinfection, an entry permit, insurance and a compensatory amount for fuel subsidies operating in Turkmenistan. The rate is changeable and varies depending on the entry point, the type of vehicle, its engine capacity and distance you intend to travel. All are payable in cash in US Dollars on entry.

If you are staying for more than 3 days, you must register with the State Migration Service of Turkmenistan. Confirm necessary paperwork with your hotel or employer. Don’t overstay your visa.

All foreign nationals need a visa to transit Turkmenistan. You can be registered at entry and exit points if your stay is not longer than five days and you hold a valid transit visa. But you won’t be able to change your transit visa in-country, and you must notify the authorities if you intend to vary your route through the country.

If you intend to travel from Turkmenistan to Azerbaijan across the Caspian Sea you should be aware that it is not possible to buy a visa on arrival at Baku seaport. Make sure you have a valid visa to enter Azerbaijan if you take the ferry.

On arrival, you must pay a US$14 migration fee ($10 fee plus $4 Admin charge).

You must register within three days of arrival with the State Migration Service of Turkmenistan at their office at 57 Azadi Street, Ashgabat. Registration is for the period of the visa and may be carried out on your behalf. If you are not staying in Ashgabat, you should register at the local department of Migration Service instead. You should bring two passport size photos. The State Migration Service of Turkmenistan will need a letter confirming your departure from Turkmenistan. A de-registration stamp in your passport is no longer required.

Non-compliance with these requirements could lead to prosecution and possible detention.

Single parents or other adults travelling alone with children should contact the Turkmen Embassy in London for advice about the documents that will be required at immigration.

If you intend to enter Turkmenistan with medicines, whether prescription or non-prescription, you should check in advance the list of prohibited medicines and the legal quantities of medicines that are allowed into the country. If you’re in any doubt, check this with the Turkmen Embassy in London before you travel (telephone 020 7610 5239).

Substances of concern to the Turkmen authorities include but are not limited to tramadol, morphine, opiates or any other constituent competent that may be considered as a narcotic drug or psychotropic agent. Possession of these items can lead to administrative or criminal proceedings if you don’t have a prescription, or if you’re carrying more than you need for your visit and don’t declare them on arrival.

If you’re travelling with prescription medicines, you should carry a doctor’s prescription and declare the items on your customs declaration form. Some medicines that are non-prescription in the UK, including codeine, can cause problems on entry into Turkmenistan. Issues have been reported at both the international airport and land borders.

Turkmen border crossings can be subject to occasional and unannounced closures.

If you’re fully vaccinated

All citizens of foreign countries arriving into Turkmenistan must have a physical document confirming that they have been vaccinated against COVID-19, or a certificate confirming the presence of antibodies to COVID-19 (IgM, IgG). The vaccination document should confirm that the last vaccination dose was provided at least 42 days prior to arrival in Turkmenistan.

Everyone entering Turkmenistan will be tested for COVID-19 on arrival, for which a fee (approximately USD $43) will be charged.

If an individual tests positive for COVID-19 upon arrival, they will have to quarantine for 7 days in a hospital- a fee will be charged.

You should confirm the latest information with your Turkmen sponsor, or with the Turkmen Embassy where your visa was issued the latest requirements, rules are subject to change with little notice.

If you’re not fully vaccinated

If an individual cannot be vaccinated for health reasons then they must provide a physical medical certificate confirming this AND a certificate confirming the presence of antibodies to COVID-19 (IgM, IgG).

Everyone entering Turkmenistan will be tested for COVID-19 on arrival, for which a fee (approximately USD $43) will be charged. All foreign visitors must then self-isolate for 3 days in a hotel or residence.

If an individual tests positive for COVID-19 upon arrival, they will have to quarantine for 7 days in a hospital- a fee will be charged.

You should confirm the latest information with your Turkmen sponsor, or with the Turkmen Embassy where your visa was issued the latest requirements for quarantine or self-isolation. These rules are subject to change with little notice.

Children and young people

Children aged 17 and under can follow the rules for fully vaccinated travellers to enter Turkmenistan.

If you’re transiting through Turkmenistan

Transiting is when you pass through one country on the way to your final destination.

It is not currently possible to transit Turkmenistan en route to another destination.

Check your passport and travel documents before you travel

If you are visiting Turkmenistan, your passport should be valid for a minimum period of 6 months after the expiry date of your visa.

Check with your travel provider to make sure your passport and other travel documents meet their requirements.

If you have a health condition, or you are pregnant, you may need specialist healthcare abroad. Check whether your destination country can provide the healthcare you may need and ensure you have appropriate travel insurance for unexpected medical evacuation or local treatment.

See the Coronavirus travel health and Healthcare sections in the Coronavirus page for COVID-19 health information.

At least 8 weeks before your trip, check the latest country-specific health advice from the National Travel Health Network and Centre (NaTHNaC) on the TravelHealthPro website. Each country-specific page has information on vaccine recommendations, any current health risks or outbreaks, and factsheets with information on staying healthy abroad. Guidance is also available from NHS (Scotland) on the FitForTravel website.

General information on travel vaccinations and a travel health checklist is available on the NHS website. You may then wish to contact your health adviser or pharmacy for advice on other preventive measures and managing any pre-existing medical conditions while you’re abroad.

The legal status and regulation of some medicines prescribed or purchased in the UK can be different in other countries. If you’re travelling with prescription or over-the-counter medicine, read this guidance from NaTHNaC on best practice when travelling with medicines. For further information on the legal status of a specific medicine, you’ll need to contact the embassy, high commission or consulate of the country or territory you’re travelling to.

While travel can be enjoyable, it can sometimes be challenging. There are clear links between mental and physical health, so looking after yourself during travel and when abroad is important. Information on travelling with mental health conditions is available in our guidance page. Further information is also available from the National Travel Health Network and Centre (NaTHNaC).

Health risks

Air quality in Turkmenistan can deteriorate from time to time. If there is a deterioration in outdoor air quality, eg due to weather events, you should minimise your individual exposure to external air by staying indoors in an air-conditioned environment as much as possible, with windows and doors closed and as well sealed as possible. Wash all fruit, vegetables and other foods which might have been exposed, and regularly damp dust all indoor surfaces, washing your hands afterwards. You’re advised to monitor local reports and weather forecasts for the latest information and local advice.

Typhoid and hepatitis A are endemic. You should ensure your inoculations are up to date. You should drink or use only boiled and filtered or bottled water and avoid ice in drinks. Avoid unpasteurised milk.

In the summer temperatures regularly reach 45 Celsius in the shade, so drink plenty of water in the summer and avoid sunburn.

Local medical care

The reciprocal healthcare agreement between the UK and Turkmenistan terminated on 1 January 2016.

The quality of medical care is poor. There are some diagnostic facilities, particularly in Ashgabat, but treatment may be unreliable or even unwise due to poorly trained staff, and a lack of drugs and equipment. Anything other than basic or emergency treatment, particularly away from the capital, is usually best avoided. Make sure you have adequate travel health insurance and accessible funds to cover the cost of any medical treatment abroad and repatriation.

The number for the local ambulance service in case of an emergency is 03. Please note however that the operator may only speak Russian or Turkmen. You should contact your insurance/medical assistance company promptly if you are referred to a medical facility for treatment.

Turkmenistan is located in an active seismic zone. Earth tremors can occur and there is a possibility of earthquakes.

The US Federal Emergency Management Agency has advice about what to do before, during and after an earthquake. Ashgabat was largely destroyed by an earthquake in 1948, when up to 100,000 people were killed.

Turkmenistan remains largely a cash-based society. You should carry cash and pay in the national currency, although some larger hotels accept US dollars. There are only a limited number of international ATMs in Ashgabat and there’s a 3% withdrawal charge for each transaction. Visa and MasterCard are the only cards currently accepted and only at some larger hotels, but even they can be used only at some larger hotels and a limited number of shops. ATMs sometimes run out of Manats and are not replenished until banks have the available stocks.

US Dollars and Euros can be easily exchanged into the local currency (Manat) at banks. As Manat can’t be re-converted into hard currency, convert only as much as you need. Bring new or clean notes in low denominations as damaged or marked notes are often refused even by official travel exchange offices. Other currencies are difficult to exchange.

Foreigners will be expected to pay for hotels and hotel services in dollars if not using credit cards, but all other payments in Turkmenistan need to be made in cash in local currency. Some shopping outlets and taxis might also request dollar payments but caution is recommended as strict controls and harsh penalties are being applied to those who are caught.

Currency regulations are also liable to sudden and unannounced change.

If you’re abroad and you need emergency help from the UK government, contact the nearest British embassy, consulate or high commission. If you need urgent help because something has happened to a friend or relative abroad, contact the Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO) in London on 020 7008 1500 (24 hours).

Foreign travel checklist

Read our foreign travel checklist to help you plan for your trip abroad and stay safe while you’re there.

Travel safety

The FCDO travel advice helps you make your own decisions about foreign travel. Your safety is our main concern, but we can’t provide tailored advice for individual trips. If you’re concerned about whether or not it’s safe for you to travel, you should read the travel advice for the country or territory you’re travelling to, together with information from other sources you’ve identified, before making your own decision on whether to travel. Only you can decide whether it’s safe for you to travel.

When we judge the level of risk to British nationals in a particular place has become unacceptably high, we’ll state on the travel advice page for that country or territory that we advise against all or all but essential travel. Read more about how the FCDO assesses and categorises risk in foreign travel advice.

Our crisis overseas page suggests additional things you can do before and during foreign travel to help you stay safe.

Refunds and cancellations

If you wish to cancel or change a holiday that you’ve booked, you should contact your travel company. The question of refunds and cancellations is a matter for you and your travel company. Travel companies make their own decisions about whether or not to offer customers a refund. Many of them use our travel advice to help them reach these decisions, but we do not instruct travel companies on when they can or can’t offer a refund to their customers.

For more information about your rights if you wish to cancel a holiday, visit the Citizen’s Advice Bureau website. For help resolving problems with a flight booking, visit the website of the Civil Aviation Authority. For questions about travel insurance, contact your insurance provider and if you’re not happy with their response, you can complain to the Financial Ombudsman Service.

Registering your travel details with us

We’re no longer asking people to register with us before travel. Our foreign travel checklist and crisis overseas page suggest things you can do before and during foreign travel to plan your trip and stay safe.

Previous versions of FCDO travel advice

If you’re looking for a previous version of the FCDO travel advice, visit the National Archives website. If you can’t find the page you’re looking for there, send the Travel Advice team a request.

Further help

If you’re a British national and you have a question about travelling abroad that isn’t covered in our foreign travel advice or elsewhere on GOV.UK, you can submit an enquiry, or contact us on Twitter or Facebook. We’re not able to provide tailored advice for specific trips.

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