World Travel Guide > Guides > Europe > Slovenia

Slovenia History, Language and Culture

History of Slovenia

An independent nation since 1991, the territory of present-day Slovenia has a rich and tumultuous history that belies its age. Until the early 20th century, foreign kingdoms –Holy Roman Empire, the Frankish Empire and Austro-Hungarian Empire – controlled Slovenia. The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, a territory later renamed Yugoslavia, then absorbed the Slovenian area at the end of WWI. But the turmoil continued in 1941 when the Axis powers invaded Yugoslavia and carved up Slovenia between Germany, Italy and Hungary.

This invasion was met with unexpectedly fierce resistance in the form of the Yugoslav Communist Party, led by Josip Broz Tito, who helped defeat the aggressors in 1945 and establish the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Slovenia became a constituent republic of this new federation, but the ruling League of Communists of Slovenia (LCS) sought greater autonomy from Belgrade, Yuguslavia's capital. Their opposition was muted, however, after similar calls from Croatia were forcefully suppressed by Tito in 1971.

Slovenia’s liberal political atmosphere quickly proved the antithesis of the autocratic climate in Serbia under Slobodan Milosevic. In 1990, it became the first Yugoslavian federal state to hold multi-party elections, which DEMOS, a six-party centre-right coalition, won.

Slovenia’s liberal political atmosphere – the antithesis to the autocratic climate in Serbia under Slobodan Milosevic – saw it holding the first multi-party elections in 1990, which were won by a six-party centre-right coalition, calling itself DEMOS.

After 14 months, during which both Slovenia and Croatia became increasingly alienated from Belgrade, Slovenia declared independence. The central government immediately sent in armoured convoys to take control of federal border posts and key installations in the capital Ljubljana.

The army clearly did not expect the resistance put up by Slovene irregulars. After 10 days of sporadic and largely inconclusive fighting, the two sides reached a ceasefire. By the end of October 1991 all federal military forces had left the republic. Full international recognition followed in May 1992, after which the DEMOS government collapsed, having achieved its sole objective of securing global acknowledgment. Slovenia was admitted to the United Nations in May 1992 and joined the EU in May 2004, becoming the first of the former Yugoslav republics to attain membership.

In over two decades, Slovenia has undergone a remarkable transformation from a controlled federal state to an independent, democratic nation and eurozone member. It was a bumpy ride – the worldwide financial crisis of 2008 hit this fledgling nation particularly hard – but the future seems to be bright for this young country of two million.

Did you know?
• Pound for pound, Slovenia is one of the most biodiverse countries on the planet – it covers just 0.004% of the world’s surface, but is home to 1% of all living creatures.
• The town of Maribor boasts the oldest vine in the world, estimated to be approximately 400 years old.
• Slovenia is home to an estimated 700 brown bears, which is one of the largest bear populations in Europe.

Slovenia Culture

Religion in Slovenia

Most of the population is Roman Catholic (about 60%), with small communities of other Christians including Eastern Orthodox. There are also Musli, Jewish and Hindu minorities, as well as 10% declared atheist or nonreligious.

Social Conventions in Slovenia

Shaking hands is the normal form of greeting. Usual European social conventions apply and informal dress is widely acceptable.

Smoking is prohibited on public transport, in cinemas, theatres, public offices and in waiting rooms. You must be at least 18 to purchase tobacco products. Slovenia’s strict smoking regulations, some of the most stringent in the EU, fall in line with the country’s ‘green’ environmental initiative.

Language in Slovenia

Slovene, which is closely related to Croat and Czech. Most Slovenes speak English, German or Italian as a second language.


Živjo / Zdravo = Hello
Kako si? / Kako ste? = How are you?
Me veseli = Nice to meet you.
Prosim = Please
Hvala = Thank you
Da = Yes
Ne = No
Nasvidenje = Goodbye

A digital image at

Related Articles

Bio healing in Bled

Following Noel Edmonds' claims that a magnetic pad can cure cancer, Jane Alexander explores whether Zdenko Domančić's bio-energy healing weekend in Bled Slovenia makes for miracle cure or esoteric bullshit.

Central European historic spas and resorts

Take a spa break in Central Europe where you can immerse yourself in history and the steamiest salubrious waters

Book a Hotel