Foreign travel advice

Poland

Summary

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The UK is leaving the European Union. The rules for passports, entry requirements, driving, EHIC cards and more may change after Brexit.

This page will be updated with country-specific information for travellers to Poland as things change. Sign up for email alerts and view the latest updates for UK nationals travelling to and living in Europe.

Around 500,000 British nationals visited Poland in 2016. Most visits are trouble-free.

There is a general threat from terrorism. There may be increased security in place over the festive period, including at Christmas markets and other major events that might attract large crowds. You should remain vigilant and follow the advice of local authorities.

Terrorist attacks in Poland can’t be ruled out.  

If you’re living in or moving to Poland, visit our Living in Poland guide in addition to this travel advice.

Driving in Poland can be hazardous.

If you hold dual Polish and British nationality, the British Embassy may only be able to offer limited consular assistance.

You should take out comprehensive travel and medical insurance before you travel. For information on the European Health Insurance Card see Health.

If you need to contact the emergency services in Poland call 112.

If you’re abroad and you need emergency help from the UK government, contact the nearest British embassy, consulate or high commission.

If you’re travelling to Poland to do business or provide services, see further guidance on providing services in Poland after Brexit.

The Overseas Business Risk service offers information and advice for British companies operating overseas on how to manage political, economic, and business security-related risks.

Safety and security

Crime

Most visitors to Poland experience no difficulties. Serious crime against foreigners is relatively rare, but incidents do occur and in some cases attacks have been racially motivated. You should also be alert to the possibility of street crime and petty theft, and that foreigners may appear to be lucrative targets. Keep valuables and cash out of sight, especially in crowded areas and tourist spots where pickpockets and bag snatchers operate.

There is a higher risk of robbery at main rail stations and on all train services, especially overnight sleeper trains. You are most at risk while boarding and leaving trains.

Unregulated taxi drivers operate at the Warsaw airports and elsewhere. They commonly overcharge. Only use official taxis, which have the name and telephone number of the taxi company on the side of the door and on the top of the taxi. They will also show a rate card on the window of the vehicle. Taxis with a crest but no company name are not officially registered taxis.

Don’t leave drinks or food unattended and beware of accepting drinks from casual acquaintances. There have been a small number of reports of drinks being spiked and visitors having their valuables stolen.

Check your bill carefully when buying drinks in bars and nightclubs. There have been some reports of overcharging and of large amounts of money being charged to debit or credit cards.

Local travel

Public transport tickets must be validated at the start of a journey. You will be fined on the spot if you’re travelling with an invalid ticket, usually 266 Polish zloty (around £54). You can buy tickets at most newspaper stands and kiosks with a sign reading ‘Bilety’ or ticket machines distributed in cities.

If you think you may qualify for a discounted fare (eg student or older person) always double-check the rules as some cheaper fares may only be available to Polish nationals. You’ll be fined if you travel with a reduced fare ticket that you’re not entitled to.

Road travel

According to EU law, driving licences issued by any EU member state are mutually recognised in other EU member states. If you are moving abroad, you cannot register your new address on your British driving licence. See the DVLA website for more information.

It is a legal requirement to carry a driving licence, ID, original vehicle-registration papers, ownership documents and insurance papers at all times. You will need to present these documents if you are stopped by the police and when crossing non-Schengen borders. This also applies to rental vehicles. If you do not have these papers the police may impound your vehicle and charge you for this. All vehicles driven on public roads in Poland must meet local technical requirements.

You will need to get an International Driving Permit (IDP) to be able to drive in some European countries as a visitor if there’s a no-deal Brexit. Check this guidance page for full information. You should also check guidance on driving in the EU after Brexit for information on other additional documents you may need to carry. If you’re living in Poland, check the Living in Guide for information on requirements for residents.

If you drive and have been drinking (even a single unit of alcohol) you can be charged. If you break Polish driving laws you should be prepared to pay an on the spot fine of between 100 and 500 PLN (around £20-100) in cash in Polish currency to the police. Foreigners who are settled in Poland and have a permanent address may be fined with a credit ticket that can be paid later.

Pedestrians and cyclists must wear a reflective item between dusk and dawn when outside a built-up area, regardless of the weather. Anyone hit by a car or a bike when not wearing a reflective item is liable to be held responsible for the accident. Police may impose a 100PLN (around £20) fine on those not wearing reflective items.

A system of toll collection is in place on selected sections of motorways, expressways and national roads. Detailed information on the system is available on the toll operator website.

Poland ranks high among European Union countries for road fatalities. In 2018 there were 2,862 road deaths in Poland (source: Department for Transport). This equates to 7.5 road deaths per 100,000 of population and compares to the UK average of 2.8 road deaths per 100,000 of population in 2018.

Poland is a major east-west transit route for heavy vehicles. The road network is being constantly upgraded, and roadworks are frequent, particularly in summer. Even some main roads between major towns and cities can be narrow and poorly surfaced, making driving after dark particularly challenging.

Be aware when motorists are turning right on a green filter arrow, pedestrians on any pedestrian crossing will also have a green light, and have priority.

When driving anywhere in Poland you must have your headlights on, at least dipped beam, even in the hours of daylight.

Seat belts must be used in both front and back seats.  

Using a mobile phone while driving (unless ‘hands free’) is banned.

See the European Commission,AA and RAC guides to driving in Poland.

Dual nationals

If you are a dual Polish-British national and are arrested or detained in Poland, you will be deemed to be Polish by the Polish authorities. You will have the same rights as any other Polish citizen in these circumstances (including the right to legal representation).

Terrorism

Attacks in Poland can’t be ruled out.

UK Counter Terrorism Policing has information and advice on staying safe abroad and what to do in the event of a terrorist attack. Find out more about the global threat from terrorism.

You should be aware of the global risk of indiscriminate terrorist attacks which could be in public places, including in places visited by foreigners.

There’s a heightened threat of terrorist attack globally against UK interests and British nationals from groups or individuals motivated by the conflict in Iraq and Syria. You should be vigilant at this time.

Local laws and customs

Polish police take a strict approach to public drunkenness. You are not allowed to consume alcohol in public places and fines may be imposed. If you are found to be drunk in a public place you may be taken to a drying out clinic where a doctor or nurse will medically assess you. You will not be released until you have sobered up and this may require an overnight stay. You will have to pay for the cost of the stay.

The drink-drive limit in Poland is 20 milligrammes of alcohol per 100 millilitres of blood – which is lower than in England, Wales and Northern Ireland (80milligrammes) and Scotland (50milligrammes). Driving a car under the influence of alcohol or drugs is strictly prohibited and is punishable by up to 2 years in prison. Likewise cycling on public roads under the influence of alcohol or drugs can result in prosecution.

Jay-walking is an offence. You should cross only at recognised crossing points. If caught by the police you will be fined.

Most Poles are fairly traditional in their outlook on social issues, but people in urban areas are generally more open-minded regarding LGBT issues. There is an active gay scene in Warsaw with a number of gay clubs and bars. Homosexuality and cohabitation by same sex partners is legal and there is parity in the age of consent (16), but civil partnerships are not formally recognised and there is no civil marriage. See our information and advice page for the LGBT community before you travel.

Entry requirements

The information on this page covers the most common types of travel and reflects the UK government’s understanding of the rules currently in place. Unless otherwise stated, this information is for travellers using a full ‘British Citizen’ passport.

The authorities in the country or territory you’re travelling to are responsible for setting and enforcing the rules for entry. If you’re unclear about any aspect of the entry requirements, or you need further reassurance, you’ll need to contact the embassy, high commission or consulate of the country or territory you’re travelling to.

You should also consider checking with your transport provider or travel company to make sure your passport and other travel documents meet their requirements.

Passport validity

Your passport should be valid for the proposed duration of your stay; you do not need any additional period of validity on your passport beyond this.

The rules for travel to most countries in Europe will change if there’s a no-deal Brexit. If your adult passport was issued over 9 years ago, you may be affected. You should use this tool to check your passport is still valid for your trip before booking travel.

Adult and child passports should have at least 6 months’ validity remaining on your date of travel. If you renewed your passport early, extra months would have been added to your new passport. Any extra months on an adult passport will not count towards the validity requirement, so some passport holders will need to have more than 6 months remaining in order to travel.

You can check your passport here.

Visas 

If you hold a British Citizen passport, you don’t need a visa to enter Poland. If you’re planning a stay of longer than 3 months, see our Living in Poland guide and contact the Polish Embassy if you have further questions.

The rules for travelling or working in Europe will change if there’s a no-deal Brexit, but you should not need a visa for short trips. The European Commission has proposed that British Citizens would be able to visit countries in the Schengen area or elsewhere in the EU for up to 90 days in any 180-day period without a visa.

If you’re travelling to Poland, previous visits to the Schengen area within the 180 days before your date of travel would count against the 90-day limit, but trips to other EU countries outside the Schengen area (Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania) would not. The 90-day visa-free period would not entitle you to work - most countries will require a visa and work permit. You may also need to get a visa before you travel if you’re planning to stay longer than 90 days, or your visit would take you over the 90 days in 180 days limit. You should check with the Polish Embassy what type of visa, if any, you will need.

After Brexit, on arrival in the Schengen area you may be asked to confirm that you have sufficient funds available for the duration of your stay. As non-EEA nationals, different border control checks will apply, and you may also be asked to show a return or onward ticket. UK nationals would not have an ongoing right to use the separate lanes provided for EU, EEA and Swiss nationals.

UK Emergency Travel Documents

UK Emergency Travel Documents are accepted for entry, airside transit and exit from Poland.

Dual nationals 

Under Polish law, a Polish passport holder must be treated as a Polish national while in Poland, even if he or she holds another country’s passport. The Polish authorities, therefore require dual Polish-British nationals to enter and exit Poland on a Polish passport. Check with the Polish Embassy in London if in doubt.

Health

At least 8 weeks before your trip, check the latest country-specific health advice from the National Travel Health Network and Centre (NaTHNaC) on the TravelHealthPro website. Each country-specific page has information on vaccine recommendations, any current health risks or outbreaks, and factsheets with information on staying healthy abroad. Guidance is also available from NHS (Scotland) on the FitForTravel website.

General information on travel vaccinations and a travel health checklist is available on the NHS website. You may then wish to contact your health adviser or pharmacy for advice on other preventive measures and managing any pre-existing medical conditions while you’re abroad.

The legal status and regulation of some medicines prescribed or purchased in the UK can be different in other countries. If you’re travelling with prescription or over-the-counter medicine, read this guidance from NaTHNaC on best practice when travelling with medicines. For further information on the legal status of a specific medicine, you’ll need to contact the embassy, high commission or consulate of the country or territory you’re travelling to.

While travel can be enjoyable, it can sometimes be challenging. There are clear links between mental and physical health, so looking after yourself during travel and when abroad is important. Information on travelling with mental health conditions is available in our guidance page. Further information is also available from the National Travel Health Network and Centre (NaTHNaC).

Access to healthcare for British nationals travelling or living in the EU, European Economic Area (EEA) and Switzerland is likely to change if there’s a no-deal Brexit. More information about healthcare for UK nationals living in and visiting Poland is available on the NHS website.

You should still get a free European Health Insurance Card (EHIC) before leaving the UK. UK-issued EHICs remain valid, but this will change if there’s no deal.

The EHIC entitles you to state provided medical treatment that may become necessary during your trip. Any treatment provided is on the same terms as Polish nationals. If you don’t have your EHIC with you or you’ve lost it, you can call the Department of Health Overseas Healthcare Team (+44 191 218 1999) to get a Provisional Replacement Certificate.

The UK government has or is seeking agreements with countries on healthcare arrangements for UK nationals after the UK leaves the EU. The NHS website and this travel advice will be updated with further information on travelling to Poland as the circumstances change.

Whether you’re travelling before or after the UK leaves the EU, it is important to take out comprehensive travel insurance that includes cover for emergency medical treatment and associated costs. The existing EHIC arrangements are not an alternative to travel insurance, as some health-related costs, including for medical repatriation, ongoing medical treatment and non-urgent treatment, are not covered. Read more about what your travel insurance should cover.

If you’re living in Poland, you can also find more information on healthcare for residents in our Living In Poland guide.

If you need emergency medical assistance during your trip, dial 112 and ask for an ambulance. If you are referred to a medical facility for treatment you should contact your insurance/medical assistance company immediately.

In general, medical facilities in Poland are comparable to those in the UK. Private medical facilities are comparatively inexpensive and of a good standard. Polish doctors and nurses are well qualified but English is not always widely spoken and you may face some communication difficulties.

Tick-borne encephalitis is common, especially in forested areas during the summer.

Money

The currency in Poland is the Zloty – available from UK foreign currency exchange providers.

It’s not possible to exchange Scottish or Northern Irish bank notes in Poland.

Travel advice help and support

If you’re abroad and you need emergency help from the UK government, contact the nearest British embassy, consulate or high commission. If you need urgent help because something has happened to a friend or relative abroad, contact the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) in London on 020 7008 1500 (24 hours).

Foreign travel checklist

Read our foreign travel checklist to help you plan for your trip abroad and stay safe while you’re there.

Travel safety

The FCO travel advice helps you make your own decisions about foreign travel. Your safety is our main concern, but we can’t provide tailored advice for individual trips. If you’re concerned about whether or not it’s safe for you to travel, you should read the travel advice for the country or territory you’re travelling to, together with information from other sources you’ve identified, before making your own decision on whether to travel. Only you can decide whether it’s safe for you to travel.

When we judge the level of risk to British nationals in a particular place has become unacceptably high, we’ll state on the travel advice page for that country or territory that we advise against all or all but essential travel. Read more about how the FCO assesses and categorises risk in foreign travel advice.

Our crisis overseas page suggests additional things you can do before and during foreign travel to help you stay safe.

Refunds and cancellations

If you wish to cancel or change a holiday that you’ve booked, you should contact your travel company. The question of refunds and cancellations is a matter for you and your travel company. Travel companies make their own decisions about whether or not to offer customers a refund. Many of them use our travel advice to help them reach these decisions, but we do not instruct travel companies on when they can or can’t offer a refund to their customers.

For more information about your rights if you wish to cancel a holiday, visit the Citizen’s Advice Bureau website. For help resolving problems with a flight booking, visit the website of the Civil Aviation Authority. For questions about travel insurance, contact your insurance provider and if you’re not happy with their response, you can complain to the Financial Ombudsman Service.

Registering your travel details with us

We’re no longer asking people to register with us before travel. Our foreign travel checklist and crisis overseas page suggest things you can do before and during foreign travel to plan your trip and stay safe.

Previous versions of FCO travel advice

If you’re looking for a previous version of the FCO travel advice, visit the National Archives website. If you can’t find the page you’re looking for there, send the Travel Advice Team a request.

Further help

If you’re a British national and you have a question about travelling abroad that isn’t covered in our foreign travel advice or elsewhere on GOV.UK, you can submit an enquiry. We’re not able to provide tailored advice for specific trips.