Canada travel guide
Whether you’re a hardcore adrenaline junkie, a wildlife enthusiast or a city slicker looking for cutting-edge culture, Canada ticks all the boxes. The world’s second-largest country (by total area) racks up an astonishing diversity of landscapes; the vast Canadian Prairies rise abruptly to the glacier-topped Rocky Mountains; rugged, unspoiled coastlines give way to immense forests and emerald lakes; and Arctic waters lap upon frozen tundra. Incredibly, this wilderness is also home to cosmopolitan cities, quirky towns and remote indigenous settlements.
Canada’s people are as varied as the landscapes; from the Arctic Indigenous peoples and the Francophone Quebeckers to the British expatriates and burgeoning Asian community, this is a multicultural land where around 22% of the population are foreign-born.
Canadian cities are progressive, vibrant and regularly feature on lists of "best places to live". Toronto, a veritable patchwork of charming neighbourhoods, has an idyllic beachside location on the shore of Lake Ontario, while Canada’s capital city, Ottawa, contains a clutch of fantastic museums and the gorgeous Rideau Canal for ice skating in winter. Montreal’s skyscrapers belie its French heritage, but look closer and you can stumble upon historic, cobbled streets and centuries-old customs.
A stone’s throw from the Canadian Rockies, booming Calgary flaunts its cowboy traditions during the annual boot-stomping Stampede. Chilled-out Vancouver, meanwhile, seems to have it all: mountains, beaches, an incredible downtown park and a cosmopolitan dining scene. And across the Georgia Strait, Vancouver Island offers a wide variety of things to see and do including marine and land activities and festivals.
For something wilder, ski steep chutes in British Columbia, kayak secluded bays with whales in Nova Scotia or learn to lasso at an Albertan ranch. Capture grizzlies on camera in the Yukon, watch mammoth icebergs drift past the Newfoundland coast, or soar over Niagara Falls by helicopter. Tour vineyards, dig for clams or feel giddy gazing at the Northern Lights. In Canada, the options are endless.
9,984,670 sq km (3,855,100 sq miles).
37,602,103 (estimate Q2 2019).
3.92 per sq km.
Federal parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy.
HM King Charles III since 2022, represented by Governor General Mary Simon since 2021.
Prime Minister Justin Trudeau since 2015.
The Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office (FCDO) provides advice about risks of travel to help British nationals make informed decisions. Find out more about FCDO travel advice.
If FCDO advises against travel or is aware of an incident that raises the risk for British nationals, information will be provided here.
There are currently several out of control wildfires in Canada, including in the provinces of Alberta and Nova Scotia. Local authorities have declared a state of emergency in the Halifax Regional Municipality, and the province of Alberta. Evacuation orders have been issued in certain areas.
If you are in Alberta you should:
- check the status of wildfires in Alberta
- sign up to Alberta’s emergency alert service (also available on Twitter, or by downloading the Alberta Emergency Alert app on the Google Play Store or Apple App Store)
If you are in Nova Scotia, particularly near Halifax, you should:
- check the status of wildfires in Nova Scotia (also available on Twitter or Facebook)
- sign up to Halifax’s emergency alert service
Before you travel
No travel can be guaranteed safe. Read all the advice in this guide as well as support for British nationals abroad, which includes:
- advice on preparing for travel abroad and reducing risks
- information for women, LGBT and disabled travellers
Follow and contact FCDO travel on Twitter, Facebook and Instagram. You can also sign up to get email notifications when this advice is updated.
If you choose to travel, research your destinations and get appropriate travel insurance. Insurance should cover your itinerary, planned activities and expenses in an emergency.
This advice reflects the UK government’s understanding of current rules for people travelling on a full ‘British citizen’ passport from the UK, for the most common types of travel.
The authorities in Canada set and enforce entry rules. If you’re not sure how these requirements apply to you, contact Canada’s High Commission in the UK.
Countries may restrict travel or bring in rules at short notice. Check with your travel company or airline for changes.
If you test positive for COVID-19, you may need to stay where you are until you test negative. You may also need to seek treatment there.
Visit TravelHealthPro (from the UK Health Security Agency) for general COVID-19 advice for travellers.
Travel to Canada
There are no COVID-19 testing or vaccination requirements for passengers entering Canada. Avoid travelling if you have symptoms of COVID-19. See the Government of Canada’s website for more information on COVID-19 and travel.
Public spaces and services
The Government of Canada recommends that all travellers wear a face mask on public transport.
You may be asked to wear a face mask indoors, such as in hospitals or on public transport. You may need proof of vaccination to visit settings such as care homes.
Local authorities in Canada can introduce restrictions or measures at short notice. Comply with the rules and advice of the local authorities. Check the COVID-19 guidance for each province and territory.
Passport validity requirements
Your passport must be valid for the duration of your stay.
Most people need a visa or an Electronic Travel Authorization (eTA) to travel to Canada – not both.
You do not need a visa for short visits (normally up to six months). You will need an eTA instead. Check entry requirements and find out if you need a visa or an eTA for your visit using this tool.
You may need to provide fingerprints and photos at a visa application centre to apply for permanent residence or a study or work permit. Find out if you need to give biometrics. If you do need to give biometrics, see the list of biometrics collection points.
When you arrive, you must show that you have enough funds to support yourself during your stay, even if you are staying with family or friends.
Contact Canada’s High Commission in the UK if you are unsure about visa requirements or your eligibility to enter the country, for example, if you have a criminal record or have been arrested.
Electronic Travel Authorisation (eTA)
You must get an Electronic Travel Authorisation (eTA) to enter or transit Canada by air, unless you’re exempt. Read the list of exemptions on the ETA website. If you enter Canada by land or sea, you don’t need an eTA. However, you must travel with acceptable travel documents and identification.
If you have British-Canadian dual nationality, you cannot apply for an eTA. You need a valid Canadian passport instead.
The eTA website has information about the eTA system and how to apply.
Visa and eTA scams
Some unauthorised websites charge for submitting visa applications. These websites are not associated with the Government of Canada.
If you think you may have been a victim of a scam, use the eTA Check Status tool to confirm if your eTA is valid. If it has been 72 hours since you applied, and you have not received a confirmation of your application, complete this enquiry form.
Transiting through Canada
You must have a valid Electronic Travel Authorisation (eTA) to transit Canada, unless you are exempt.
If you have questions, contact:
- your airline
- Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada
- your nearest Canadian high commission, embassy or consulate
Find out more about transiting Canada.
Travelling with Children
If only one parent is present, carry a letter of consent from the non-travelling parent. Immigration officers have the right to question children using simple and appropriate language to see if there are any concerns about child abduction.
For further information, check with Canada’s High Commission in the UK or the Canada Border Services Agency.
UK Emergency Travel Documents
UK Emergency Travel Documents (ETDs) are accepted for entry, airside transit and exit from Canada. You can apply for an Electronic Travel Authorisation using an ETD.
There are strict rules about goods that can be taken into - and out - of Canada. You must declare anything that may be prohibited or subject to tax or duty.
Banned food products will be confiscated and you could be fined. Check the Canadian Food Inspection Agency website for more information.
If you visited a farm, or had contact with wild animals before entering Canada, and intend to visit a farm during your stay, you must complete the relevant section in your Customs Declaration Card. For more information, see the Government of Canada’s website on biosecurity.
There’s a heightened threat of terrorist attacks globally against UK interests and British nationals from groups or individuals motivated by the conflict in Iraq and Syria.
UK Counter Terrorism Policing has information and advice on staying safe abroad and what to do in the event of a terrorist attack. Find out more about the global threat from terrorism.
Terrorism in Canada
Terrorists are likely to try to carry out attacks in Canada.
The main threat comes from individuals influenced by extremist ideology to carry out attacks. Attacks could be indiscriminate, including in places visited by foreigners. Monitor local media reports and stay vigilant.
Recent attacks include:
- in 2023, one person was stabbed and injured in Surrey, British Columbia
- in 2021, 4 people were killed and one injured by a vehicle in London, Ontario
- in 2020, one person was killed with a hammer in Scarborough, Ontario
- in 2020, one person was killed and 2 wounded in a machete attack in Toronto, Ontario
See the Government of Canada’s national terrorism threat level.
Take precautions to protect yourself from petty crime, including:
- not leaving your bag or luggage unattended
- keeping luggage out of sight in cars
- keeping valuables and passport in a hotel safe
- leaving copies of important documents with family and friends in the UK
- carrying a photocopy of your passport for ID
Laws and cultural differences
Recreational cannabis is legally available in Canada. Local laws vary depending on the province or territory you are visiting. It is illegal to carry any form of cannabis into the UK without a valid licence issued by the Home Office. This includes cannabis and cannabinoid oils prescribed for medicinal purposes in Canada. It is illegal to take cannabis across the Canadian border without a permit or exemption authorised by Health Canada.
There is more information on the Canadian Border Services Agency website.
If you are hiking or camping, be considerate and cautious of local wildlife. You should:
take all rubbish with you including food items to avoid attracting animals to your site
be careful around animals with nearby young or nests – they may be aggressive when protecting their territory
research the region to learn about the local wildlife
take particular care if you’re in an area where bears have been sighted
keep a safe distance from any wildlife including marine animals and birds
follow park regulations
Traffic and safety laws vary between provinces and territories. This includes laws on whether you are allowed to turn right on a red light. See more information on driving in Canada.
Follow speed limits and take extra care when travelling on country roads. Watch out for wild animals.
For more information on road conditions and road safety, see Transport Canada, the Canadian Automobile Association and Travel Canada.
Driving in winter
In winter, highways are often closed because of snowstorms and avalanches in Alberta, British Columbia and other provinces. Check local weather conditions on The Weather Network.
Driving conditions can be dangerous, even when roads remain open during a winter storm. Take care, follow local restrictions or guidelines, and make sure your vehicle has snow tyres and emergency supplies.
Car hire in Canada
You can drive a car in Canada using a full UK driving licence. However, some car hire companies may require you to have an International Driving Permit. Check your car hire company’s requirements before you travel. Always carry your driving licence and take out full insurance cover if you hire a vehicle.
Extreme weather and natural disasters
From July to November, coastal areas can be affected by hurricanes. Check the National Hurricane Centre, Environment Canada and The Weather Network websites for the latest weather conditions. See FCDO advice on tropical cyclones.
Avalanches can happen in mountainous regions, including Alberta and British Columbia. Always follow avalanche advice and stay away from closed trails. Follow the directions of local guides or instructors. For more information and avalanche news, visit the Canadian Avalanche Foundation.
Earthquakes and tsunamis
Familiarise yourself with safety procedures in the event of an earthquake or tsunami. The Government of Canada has more information about emergency preparedness.
Summer thunderstorms are frequent in most parts of Canada, particularly between April and September. They can cause property damage and threaten lives.
Tornadoes can occur anywhere in Canada between May and September, but June to July is the peak season in:
- Southern Ontario
- southeastern Quebec
- Southern Saskatchewan and Manitoba through to Thunder Bay
- the interior of British Columbia and western New Brunswick
Follow instructions from Canadian officials or law enforcement. Check the National Hurricane Centre for weather updates.
Forest fires can start at any time, whatever the season. There is more risk of fire in the grasslands and forests of western Canada. Follow local warnings or news for details on latest outbreaks.
For more information about active wildfires and forecasts, visit the Canadian Wildland Fire Information System website.
Most British nationals travel safely around the Arctic each year. However, consular assistance and support to British nationals is limited by the capacity of national and local authorities. Make sure you have appropriate travel insurance and accessible funds to cover the cost of any medical treatment or potential repatriation.
Before you visit:
- consider the remote nature of certain destinations and access to medical facilities, search and rescue and evacuation options
- have emergency plans in place, particularly if you are an independent traveller
Sea travel in the Arctic
Most people visit the Arctic by ship. Some areas of the Arctic are uncharted and ice-covered. Before you travel:
- check the experience and credentials of operators offering travel in the region
- consider the on-board medical facilities and discuss any pre-existing medical conditions with the cruise operator
Search and rescue
In the highest latitude regions of the Arctic, cruise ships may be isolated from other vessels or populated areas. Be aware that:
- search and rescue response may be very far away
- assistance to stranded vessels may take several days to arrive, particularly in bad weather
- search and rescue teams will only offer basic transport and medical care; they are unlikely to be able to offer advanced life support
Before you travel, check that:
- your destination can provide the healthcare you may need
- you have appropriate travel insurance for local treatment or unexpected medical evacuation
This is particularly important if you have a health condition or are pregnant.
Emergency medical number
Dial 911 and ask for an ambulance.
Contact your insurance or medical assistance company promptly if you’re referred to a medical facility for treatment.
Vaccinations and health risks
At least 8 weeks before your trip, check:
- the latest information on health risks and what vaccinations you need for Canada on TravelHealthPro (from the UK’s National Travel Health Network and Centre)
- where to get vaccines and whether you have to pay on the NHS travel vaccinations page
Altitude sickness is a risk in parts of Canada, including the ski and hiking destinations in the Canadian Rockies, such as Banff and Lake Louise. More information about altitude sickness is available from TravelHealthPro.
The legal status and regulation of some medicines prescribed or bought in the UK can be different in other countries.
TravelHealthPro explains best practice when travelling with medicines.
The NHS has information on whether you can take your medicine abroad.
Healthcare facilities in Canada
The cost of medical treatment can be very expensive. There are no special arrangements for British visitors.
For emergency healthcare, go to a hospital emergency room or a walk-in clinic.
If you have dual British-Canadian citizenship, you may still have to pay for medical treatment if you don’t meet provincial residency requirements for healthcare. Check with the relevant province or territory for more information.
COVID-19 healthcare in Canada
Check the latest information on risk from COVID-19 for Canada on TravelHealthPro.
Seek medical assistance if you develop COVID-19 symptoms while in Canada. Follow the advice from Public Health Canada for updates and guidance. These Twitter accounts are also official sources of information and guidance:
The TravelHealthPro website has more advice on travel abroad and reducing spread of respiratory viruses during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Travel and mental health
Read FCDO guidance on travel and mental health. There is also guidance on TravelHealthPro.
The Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office (FCDO) cannot provide tailored advice for individual trips. Read this travel advice and carry out your own research before deciding whether to travel.
Emergency services in Canada
Telephone: 911 (ambulance, fire, police)
Coast guard maritime emergencies
Contact your travel provider and insurer
Contact your travel provider and your insurer if you are involved in a serious incident or emergency abroad. They will tell you if they can help and what you need to do.
Refunds and changes to travel
For refunds or changes to travel, contact your travel provider. You may also be able to make a claim through insurance. However, insurers usually require you to talk to your travel provider first.
Find out more about changing or cancelling travel plans, including:
- where to get advice if you are in a dispute with a provider
- how to access previous versions of travel advice to support a claim
Support from FCDO
FCDO provides guidance on how to help yourself stay safe and what to do if you need help or support abroad, including:
- if hospitalised abroad
- death abroad
- if you are a victim of crime, including assault or theft
- if someone goes missing
- arrest and detention, including finding legal help
- if you are affected by a crisis, such as a terrorist attack
Find more support for British nationals abroad.
Follow and contact FCDO travel on Twitter, Facebook and Instagram. You can also sign up to get email notifications when this travel advice is updated.
Find more support for British nationals abroad.
Help abroad in an emergency
If you are abroad and you need emergency help from the UK government, contact the nearest British embassy, consulate or high commission.
You can also contact FCDO online.
FCDO in London
You can call FCDO in London if you need urgent help because something has happened to a friend or relative abroad.
Telephone: 020 7008 5000 (24 hours)