South Africa travel guide
About South Africa
With golden beaches, jagged mountains and national parks overflowing with wildlife, South Africa is the Africa you’ve always imagined. While memories of a troubled past remain, the republic is well on the way to regaining its throne as the holiday capital of Africa, visited by nearly 10 million people every year.
Topping a long list of attractions is the republic’s spectacular wildlife and natural scenery. National parks and nature reserves preserve an incredible variety of landscapes – rolling plains, towering mountains, arid deserts, coastal fynbos (shrubland) and pure blue oceans – home to an incredible variety of wildlife, from lions and elephants to great white sharks and playful penguins.
South Africa's cities are no less varied. In the far south, lorded over by iconic Table Mountain, Cape Town is South Africa’s most accessible gateway, with gorgeous beaches, vibrant, multicultural neighbourhoods, famous vineyards, a lively nightlife and fine dining to rival any European capital. You’ll find a similarly cosmopolitan vibe in Johannesburg, the energetic capital, and in beachside Durban, where the hot sunshine is matched by the scorching curries cooked up by the South Asian community.
In between you can lose yourself for days on safari. The undisputed top spot for wildlife spotters is world-famous Kruger National Park, where the Big Five – lions, leopards, elephants, buffaloes and rhinos – are joined by hundreds of other African species.
If the landscape sounds diverse, wait until you meet the people. South Africa boasts 11 official languages and more than a dozen tribes, living alongside communities from Africa, Europe and the Indian subcontinent – little wonder this is known as the Rainbow Nation. This diversity is tangible everywhere, from the architecture and language to the nation’s spectacular cuisine.
Nevertheless, huge inequality remains, still sharply marked out along racial lines. To understand modern South Africa, everyone should visit Johannesburg’s moving Apartheid Museum, and Robben Island prison, where Nelson Mandela was held for 18 years. Or you could join a township tour in Soweto, which, like the rest of your trip, you’ll never forget.
1,219,912 sq km (471,011 sq miles).
46 per sq km.
Cape Town (legislative); Pretoria (executive); Bloemfontein (judicial).
President Cyril Ramaphosa since 2018.
President Cyril Ramaphosa since 2018.
Last updated: 21 March 2019
The travel advice summary below is provided by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in the UK. 'We' refers to the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. For their full travel advice, visit www.gov.uk/foreign-travel-advice.
Immigration rules regarding parents and adults travelling with children (under 18) to show the child’s full unabridged birth certificate have been partially relaxed. Following a revision to the Immigration Act in December 2018, minors travelling with both parents do not need to supply additional documentation. However, South Africa reserves the right to request a copy of the child’s unabridged birth certificate before granting entry, at the discretion of individual immigration officers. Whilst South Africa has said that it is unlikely documentation will be requested, we recommend that you’re prepared to present the unabridged birth certificate to border officials upon arrival, particularly where one parent’s surname differs from the child’s. The full unabridged birth certificate should list the child’s details and both parents’ details. The abridged (short) birth certificate which only lists the child’s particulars won’t be accepted. There are additional requirements if the child is travelling with only the one parent, with neither biological parent, or unaccompanied.
The Western Cape has suffered a prolonged drought, but the situation has improved. The Cape Town municipal region was most affected but water restrictions were reduced in October 2018. If you’re planning to travel to the area, you should be mindful of water consumption and comply with local restrictions. Further information can be found at the Water Western Cape website and the latest projections on water supply.
There is a very high level of crime including rape and murder in South Africa. The most violent crimes tend to occur in townships, remote and isolated areas and away from the normal tourist destinations. Most visits to South Africa are trouble-free, but you should take sensible precautions to protect your safety. Crime increases in areas where large crowds gather, so be particularly vigilant if you’re attending sporting or other events that attract large numbers.
As of July 2018, police are investigating a series of incendiary devices placed at different locations in the Durban area. Two of these devices were triggered, causing small fires. You should exercise usual caution if you encounter unexpected devices or packages. If in doubt, contact the police.
There are regular protest marches and strike related demonstrations across South Africa, which can turn violent. Such marches and demonstrations can occur anywhere in South Africa, sometimes at short notice. You should avoid areas where demonstrations and marches are taking place, especially universities and government buildings. Don’t attempt to cross protester roadblocks as this could provoke a violent reaction. You should monitor local and social media for updates.
From 26 May 2014, if you live in South Africa, you must have a valid residence permit when you enter and leave the country. Instead of fining those whose permits have expired, you may be blacklisted and prevented from applying for a visa to re-enter South Africa for a period from 12 months to 5 years.
There have been incidents involving foreigners being followed from OR Tambo International Airport in Johannesburg to their destinations by car and then robbed, often at gunpoint. Be vigilant in and around the airport and when driving away.
The standard of driving is variable and there are many fatal accidents.
Beach conditions and local safety provisions vary considerably throughout the South African coastline and every year several people drown due to the strong sea currents.
Terrorists are likely to try to carry out attacks in South Africa. See Terrorism
If you’re abroad and you need emergency help from the UK government, contact the nearest British embassy, consulate or high commission.
The Overseas Business Risk service offers information and advice for British companies operating overseas on how to manage political, economic, and business security-related risks.
Safety and security
South Africa has a very high level of crime, including rape and murder. The risk of violent crime to visitors travelling to the main tourist destinations is generally low. The South African authorities give high priority to protecting tourists and tourism police are deployed in several large towns. The risk of crime increases in urban areas across South Africa, particularly in central business districts in major cities, and townships on the outskirts of major cities. A higher state of awareness is required if travelling through these areas. Most cases of violent crime and murder tend to occur in townships remote and isolated areas. Consult a reliable tour guide if you visit a township.
In recent months there have been several bomb threats made against shopping malls and other public places, leading to evacuations of the immediate area by the authorities. South African police are continuing to investigate these incidents. You should monitor the advice of relevant authorities in local and social media. In the event of any future alerts, you should move away from areas where alerts or threats are reported and follow the instructions of the local authorities at the scene.
Crime increases in areas where large crowds gather, so be particularly vigilant if you’re attending sporting or other events that attract large numbers.
There are ongoing tensions between Uber and metered taxi drivers, which at times escalate into violence. You should exercise caution when using either service, particularly if using the Gautrain or travelling to and from airports in South Africa.
Incidents of vehicle hi-jacking and robbery are common, particularly after dark. Keep to main roads and park in well lit areas. Vulnerable areas include, but are not limited to: traffic lights, junctions, and when approaching or pulling out from driveways. Take care at all times and be vigilant of your surroundings when in a stationary vehicle.
There are frequent incidents of car windows being broken and valuables taken while cars are waiting at junctions. Keep valuables out of sight.
Due to thefts at OR Tambo International Airport in Johannesburg, you should vacuum-wrap luggage where local regulations permit. Keep all valuables in your carry-on luggage.
Keep large amounts of money, expensive jewelry, cameras and phones out of sight. Try to use ATM’s in banks or secure shopping malls and be discreet when making withdrawals. Thieves operate at international airports, bus and railway stations, and in all major central business districts. Keep your valuables safe and baggage with you at all times.
Don’t give personal or financial account information details to anyone. There are international fraud rings operating in South Africa, who may target visitors and charities.
There’s an increasing threat of kidnap throughout South Africa. Kidnaps can be for financial gain or motivated by criminality. In recent years several foreign nationals, including British nationals, have been kidnapped.
British nationals can be perceived as being wealthier than locals and may be at particular risk of kidnap for financial gain.
The long-standing policy of the British government is not to make substantive concessions to hostage takers. The British government considers that paying ransoms and releasing prisoners increases the risk of further hostage taking.
There are particularly high levels of crime in the Berea and Hillbrow districts of Johannesburg and around the Rotunda bus terminus in the Central Business District in Johannesburg.
Be particularly vigilant in Durban’s city centre and beachfront area.
Keep to main roads and avoid driving at night when visiting Northern KwaZulu Natal and Zululand, as there have been incidents of hi-jacking and robbery, particularly on isolated secondary roads.
Be vigilant on the approach roads to and from Kruger Park where there have been cases of car hijacking.
Avoid isolated beaches and picnic spots. Don’t walk alone, especially in remote areas or on beaches after dark or when beachgoers have left.
Hikers should stick to popular trails and hike in large groups taking local advice where available on security. There have been violent attacks on hikers and tourists on Table Mountain. Take care in quieter areas of the Park, especially early in the morning or just before the park closes. More advice on hiking on Table Mountain is available on the South African Nationals Parks website.
Call the police (on 10111 or on 112 from a mobile phone) at the first sign of danger.
Mobile phone reception is generally good in major towns and cities but can be intermittent in more remote spots.
Protest marches and demonstrations can occur anywhere in South Africa and sometimes at short notice. Avoid areas where demonstrations and marches are taking place.
You can drive using a UK Driving Licence for up to 12 months.
The standard of driving in South Africa can vary greatly and there are many fatal accidents every year.
On highways overtaking can occur in any lane including the hard shoulder. On single-lane roads the hard shoulder is also sometimes used by trucks and slower vehicles to allow faster vehicles to overtake. At quieter intersections, first vehicle to arrive sometimes has priority. On roundabouts, you should give way to the right, although this rule is often ignored.
Road standards are mostly very good, but some roads in remote areas are less well maintained and may have potholes. Drive cautiously, obey speed limits and avoid unfamiliar rural areas at night. Thieves have been known to employ various methods to make a vehicle stop (eg placing large stones in the middle of the road) enabling them to rob the occupants. Park in well-lit areas. Don’t pick up strangers or stop to help apparently distressed motorists, as this is a technique sometimes used by hijackers. It’s better to report any incident to the police.
The Metrorail suburban railway in the larger cities of South Africa is often unreliable and has high crime levels including theft of infrastructure and criminal activity on board trains. If you use Metrorail, you should exercise caution, take local advice and follow Metrorail’s own safety and security advice which is available at main stations.
Long distance train services operated by the Passenger Rail Authority of South Africa (PRASA) under the names ‘Shoshaloza Myel’ and ‘Premier Classe’ are sometimes delayed en route for long periods. Be security conscious if using these services particularly at night when doors and windows to the cabins should be secured.
The ‘Gautrain’ high speed commuter train service which runs between Johannesburg, Pretoria and the Oliver Tambo International Airport is secure and reliable. Buses and taxis are available at most Gautrain stations. Walking to and from Gautrain stations after dark isn’t advisable.
Luxury trains such as The Blue Train and Rovos Rail have very high levels of security and safety but can still be impacted by delays en route.
Beach conditions and local safety provisions vary considerably throughout the South African coastline and every year significant numbers of people drown due to the strong sea currents. Speak to local people who are familiar with the conditions, and check whether there are any flags and/or lifeguards before entering the water. Most beaches don’t have warning signs, flags or life-saving equipment.
Follow any warnings that are displayed and instructions issued by lifeguards. Familiarise yourself with the signs of a rip current or tide. Contact the National Sea Rescue Institute in case of emergency.
For more information about how to stay safe, visit the website of the South Africa National Sea Rescue Institute, or read this information sheet and watch this video about how to avoid being caught up in a rip current:
Local laws and customs
Always carry a copy of your passport data page and the page containing your visitors permit or residence permit for South Africa. You may need to produce valid identification and proof of legal residence in the country on request by South African officials.
It’s safer to keep your passport in a hotel safe or another secure location rather than carry it on your person unless you need it for official identification purposes such as for domestic air travel or conducting business at a bank.
Drug-taking and smuggling is an offence.
It’s illegal to buy, sell, kill or capture any protected wild animal or trade any of its parts without a permit. South Africa is a signatory to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) under which there’s a ban on the international commercial trade in ivory and rhino horn. Anyone caught buying or trafficking banned goods will be prosecuted and receive prison sentences and/or fines.
Homosexuality is legal, and the South African authorities have introduced legislation which bans any discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. See our information and advice page for the LGBT community before you travel.
Terrorists are likely to try to carry out attacks in South Africa. Attacks could be indiscriminate, including in places visited by foreigners such as shopping areas in major cities.
The main threat is from extremists linked to Daesh (formerly referred to as ISIL). In February 2018, two South African-British nationals were kidnapped.
News reports suggest that a number of South African nationals have travelled to Syria, Iraq and Libya. They are likely to pose a security threat on their return. There’s also a threat from individuals who may have been inspired by terrorist groups, including Daesh, to carry out so called ‘lone actor’ attacks targeting public places including where foreigners may gather.
South African authorities have successfully disrupted several planned attacks and made a number of arrests related to terrorism offences including alleged plots to attack Jewish targets and western diplomatic missions. South African authorities have also been effective against right-wing extremists.
There’s a heightened threat of terrorist attack globally against UK interests and British nationals, from groups or individuals motivated by the conflict in Iraq and Syria. You should be vigilant at this time.
Find out more about the global threat from terrorism, how to minimise your risk and what to do in the event of a terrorist attack.
The information on this page covers the most common types of travel and reflects the UK government’s understanding of the rules currently in place. Unless otherwise stated, this information is for travellers using a full ‘British Citizen’ passport.
The authorities in the country or territory you’re travelling to are responsible for setting and enforcing the rules for entry. If you’re unclear about any aspect of the entry requirements, or you need further reassurance, you’ll need to contact the embassy, high commission or consulate of the country or territory you’re travelling to.
You should also consider checking with your transport provider or travel company to make sure your passport and other travel documents meet their requirements.
South Africa has implemented biometric capturing at all ports of entry. This may result in some delays at land borders. You should allow additional time for border crossings.
Technically, your passport should be valid for a minimum period of 30 days (page 9) from the date of exit from South Africa. However, some immigration officials still request that a passport should have at least 6 months validity on the date of entry to South Africa. To avoid problems at the airport on arrival we recommend you meet this requirement.
Your passport should have at least 2 blank pages when you present it at immigration to enter or leave South Africa.
If you’re visiting South Africa for tourism or business purposes for a period of up to 90 days, you don’t need a visa.
If you hold South African citizenship, you must enter and exit South Africa on your South African passport. It is an offence under South African law for a citizen aged 18 or over to enter or leave the country on a foreign passport.
Travelling with children (under 18)
Since 2015 all parents travelling to South Africa with children had been required to show the child’s full unabridged birth certificate upon arrival. Additional documentation was required for children travelling with only one parent.
On 1 December 2018, the Immigration Act was amended. For visitors from visa exempt countries, including the UK, the revised requirements are:
Minors travelling with both parents do not need to supply additional documentation. However, South Africa reserves the right to request a copy of the child’s unabridged birth certificate before granting entry, at the discretion of individual immigration officers. Whilst South Africa has said it is unlikely documentation will be requested, we recommend that you’re prepared to present the unabridged birth certificate to border officials upon arrival, particularly where one parent’s surname differs from the child’s. The full unabridged birth certificate should list the child’s details and both parent’s details. The abridged (short) birth certificate which only lists the child’s particulars will not be accepted.
Minors travelling without one or both parents may be required to show a full unabridged birth certificate, in addition to other documentation set out in the 2015 Immigration Act. We recommend you are prepared to present this documentation upon arrival. These requirements are set out under Section 4, part C, Amendment of regulation of the Regulations.
School groups should use this consent form in addition to the documents listed above. This special dispensation applies to all schools registered with the Department for Basic Education and its equivalent abroad.
The South African Department of Home Affairs have confirmed that no supporting documents will be required by people in direct transit through a South African International Airport. Check with your airline to see whether you need to go through immigration on arrival in South Africa, collect luggage and check in again. If you do go through immigration you’ll need to provide the correct documentation.
Contact your nearest South African High Commission if you have any specific questions about your trip.
New rules were introduced in May 2014. If you live in South Africa, you must have valid residence permit in your passport when entering and leaving the country. Receipts issued by the Department of Home Affairs for applications to renew a permit will not be accepted by the immigration authorities. For more information, contact the South African High Commission or the South African Department of Home Affairs.
Instead of fining individuals whose permits have expired, you may be declared undesirable and prevented from applying for a visa to re-enter South Africa for a period from 12 months to 5 years. For more information, contact the South African High Commission or the South African Department of Home Affairs.
If you’re issued a Form 19 ‘declaration of undesirability’ at the port of entry/exit and you wish to appeal against the decision you should email firstname.lastname@example.org and include a copy of your current passport, copy of your last valid visa, copy of the Form 19 and proof of application for a residence permit.
UK Emergency Travel Documents
UK Emergency Travel Documents (ETDs) are generally accepted for entry into South Africa on emergency medical grounds only. If you’re planning to enter the country on an ETD, you’re advised to check requirements with the nearest South African embassy, high commission or consulate before confirming your travel plans. ETDs are accepted for airside transit and exit from South Africa but should have a minimum of 6 months validity.
Yellow fever certificate requirements
Check whether you need a yellow fever certificate by visiting the National Travel Health Network and Centre’s TravelHealthPro website.
At least 8 weeks before your trip, check the latest country-specific health advice from the National Travel Health Network and Centre (NaTHNaC) on the TravelHealthPro website. Each country-specific page has information on vaccine recommendations, any current health risks or outbreaks, and factsheets with information on staying healthy abroad. Guidance is also available from NHS (Scotland) on the FitForTravel website.
General information on travel vaccinations and a travel health checklist is available on the NHS website. You may then wish to contact your health adviser or pharmacy for advice on other preventive measures and managing any pre-existing medical conditions while you’re abroad.
The legal status and regulation of some medicines prescribed or purchased in the UK can be different in other countries. If you’re travelling with prescription or over-the-counter medicine, read this guidance from NaTHNaC on best practice when travelling with medicines. For further information on the legal status of a specific medicine, you’ll need to contact the embassy, high commission or consulate of the country or territory you’re travelling to.
Make sure you have adequate travel health insurance and accessible funds to cover the cost of any medical treatment abroad and repatriation.
As of 15 March 2018 Plasmodium falciparum malaria has been reported in 2 UK residents, who had recently returned from the Waterberg region. Further information is available from the National Travel Health Network and Centre
According to the 2018 UNAIDS Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic South Africa has the biggest HIV epidemic in the world, with 7.1 million people living with HIV. HIV prevalence is high among the general population at 18.9%. You should exercise normal precautions to avoid exposure to HIV/AIDS. There is no reciprocal health care agreement between the United Kingdom and South Africa.
If you need emergency medical assistance during your trip, dial 10177 and ask for an ambulance. You should contact your insurance/medical assistance company promptly if you are referred to a medical facility for treatment.
There are limits on the amount of currency you can bring into South Africa. For cash in South African Rand (ZAR), the limit is 25,000ZAR. For combinations of cash in other currencies, the limit is US$10,000 (or equivalent). You should declare any amount higher than this on entry to South Africa.
There is a high incidence of credit card fraud and fraud involving ATMs. Make sure your PIN is not seen by others when withdrawing money from an ATM. Refuse offers of help from bystanders. Don’t change large sums of money in busy public areas. Try to use ATM’s in banks or secure shopping malls and be discreet when making withdrawals.
Protect any documents containing details of credit cards or bank accounts.
Travel advice help and support
If you’re abroad and you need emergency help from the UK government, contact the nearest British embassy, consulate or high commission. If you need urgent help because something has happened to a friend or relative abroad, contact the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) in London on 020 7008 1500 (24 hours).
Foreign travel checklist
Read our foreign travel checklist to help you plan for your trip abroad and stay safe while you’re there.
The FCO travel advice helps you make your own decisions about foreign travel. Your safety is our main concern, but we can’t provide tailored advice for individual trips. If you’re concerned about whether or not it’s safe for you to travel, you should read the travel advice for the country or territory you’re travelling to, together with information from other sources you’ve identified, before making your own decision on whether to travel. Only you can decide whether it’s safe for you to travel.
When we judge the level of risk to British nationals in a particular place has become unacceptably high, we’ll state on the travel advice page for that country or territory that we advise against all or all but essential travel. Read more about how the FCO assesses and categorises risk in foreign travel advice.
Our crisis overseas page suggests additional things you can do before and during foreign travel to help you stay safe.
Refunds and cancellations
If you wish to cancel or change a holiday that you’ve booked, you should contact your travel company. The question of refunds and cancellations is a matter for you and your travel company. Travel companies make their own decisions about whether or not to offer customers a refund. Many of them use our travel advice to help them reach these decisions, but we do not instruct travel companies on when they can or can’t offer a refund to their customers.
For more information about your rights if you wish to cancel a holiday, visit the Citizen’s Advice Bureau website. For help resolving problems with a flight booking, visit the website of the Civil Aviation Authority. For questions about travel insurance, contact your insurance provider and if you’re not happy with their response, you can complain to the Financial Ombudsman Service.
Registering your travel details with us
We’re no longer asking people to register with us before travel. Our foreign travel checklist and crisis overseas page suggest things you can do before and during foreign travel to plan your trip and stay safe.
Previous versions of FCO travel advice
If you’re a British national and you have a question about travelling abroad that isn’t covered in our foreign travel advice or elsewhere on GOV.UK, you can submit an enquiry. We’re not able to provide tailored advice for specific trips.